Table of Contents

1.1 Some characteristics of fluids
1.2 Dimensions, dimensional homogeneity, and units
1.3 Analysis of fluid behavior
1.4 Measures of fluid mass and weight
1.5 Ideal gas law
1.6 Viscosity
1.7 Compressibility of fluids
1.8 Vapor pressure
1.9 Surface tension
1.10 A brief look back in history
1.11 Chapter summary
1.12 Key equations
1.13 References
1.14 Problems

2.1 Pressure at a point
2.2 Basic equation for pressure field
2.3 Pressure variation in a fluid at rest
2.4 Standard atmosphere
2.5 Measurement of pressure
2.6 Manometry
2.7 Mechanical and electronic pressure-measuring devices
2.8 Hydrostatic force on a plane surface
2.9 Pressure prism
2.10 Hydrostatic force on a curved surface
2.11 Buoyancy, flotation, and stability
2.12 Pressure variation in a fluid with rigid-body motion
2.13 Chapter summary
2.14 Key equations
2.15 References
2.16 Problems

3.1 Newton’s second law
3.2 F = ma along a streamline
3.3 F = ma normal to a streamline
3.4 Physical interpretations and alternate forms of the Bernoulli equation
3.5 Static, stagnation, dynamic, and total pressure
3.6 Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation
3.7 The energy line and the hydraulic grade line
3.8 Restrictions on use of the Bernoulli equation
3.9 Chapter summary
3.10 Key equations
3.11 References
3.12 Problems

4.1 The velocity field
4.2 The acceleration field
4.3 Control volume and system representations
4.4 The Reynolds transport theorem
4.5 Chapter summary
4.6 Key equations
4.7 References
4.8 Problems

5.1 Conservation of mass—the continuity equation
5.2 Newton’s second law—the linear momentum equation
5.3 Newton’s second law—the angular momentum equation
5.4 First law of thermodynamics—the energy equation
5.5 Second law of thermodynamics—irreversible flow
5.6 Chapter summary
5.7 Key equations
5.8 References
5.9 Problems

6.1 Fluid element kinematics
6.2 Conservation of mass
6.3 The linear momentum equation
6.4 Inviscid flow
6.5 Some basic, plane potential flows
6.6 Superposition of basic, plane potential flows
6.7 Other aspects of potential flow analysis
6.8 Viscous flow
6.9 Some simple solutions for laminar, viscous, incompressible flows
6.10 Other aspects of differential analysis
6.11 Chapter summary
6.12 Key equations
6.13 References
6.14 Problems

7.1 The need for dimensional analysis
7.2 Buckingham pi theorem
7.3 Determination of pi terms
7.4 Some additional comments about dimensional analysis
7.5 Determination of pi terms by inspection
7.6 Common dimensionless groups in fluid mechanics
7.7 Correlation of experimental data
7.8 Modeling and similitude
7.9 Some typical model studies
7.10 Similitude based on governing differential equations
7.11 Chapter summary
7.12 Key equations
7.13 References
7.14 Problems

8.1 General characteristics of pipe flow
8.2 Fully developed laminar flow
8.3 Fully developed turbulent flow
8.4 Pipe flow losses via dimensional analysis
8.5 Pipe flow examples
8.6 Pipe flowrate measurement
8.7 Chapter summary
8.8 Key equations
8.9 References
8.10 Problems

9.1 General external flow characteristics
9.2 Boundary layer characteristics
9.3 Drag
9.4 Lift
9.5 Chapter summary
9.6 Key equations
9.7 References
9.8 Problems

10.1 General characteristics of open-channel flow
10.2 Surface waves
10.3 Energy considerations
10.4 Uniform flow
10.5 Gradually varied flow
10.6 Rapidly varied flow
10.7 Chapter summary
10.8 Key equations
10.9 References
10.10 Problems

11.1 Ideal gas thermodynamics
11.2 Stagnation properties
11.3 Mach number and speed of sound
11.4 Compressible flow regimes
11.5 Shock waves
11.6 Isentropic flow
11.7 One-dimensional flow in a variable area duct
11.8 Constant-area duct flow with friction
11.9 Frictionless flow in a constant-area duct with heating or cooling
11.10 Analogy between compressible and open-channel flows
11.11 Two-dimensional supersonic flow
11.12 Effects of compressibility in external flow
11.13 Chapter summary
11.14 Key equations
11.15 References
11.16 Problems

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Basic energy considerations
12.3 Angular momentum considerations
12.4 The centrifugal pump
12.5 Dimensionless parameters and similarity laws
12.6 Axial-flow and mixed-flow pumps
12.7 Fans
12.8 Turbines
12.9 Compressible flow turbomachines
12.10 Chapter summary
12.11 Key equations
12.12 References
12.13 Problems

13.1 Introduction
13.2 A very simple example
13.3 Discretization
13.4 The computational grid
13.5 Boundary conditions
13.6 Turbulence models
13.7 Solving the equations
13.8 Some unexpected complications
13.9 Verification and validation
13.10 Application of CFD
13.11 Appendix summary
13.12 References

14.1 Physical properties of fluids
14.2 Physical properties of common liquids and gases

15.1 Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere

16.1 Compressible flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

17.1 Comprehensive table of conversion factors

18.1 Conversion factors (continued)

19.1 Moody chart and equivalent roughness table

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Andrew L. Gerhart
Lawrence Technological University

John I. Hochstein
University of Memphis

Philip M. Gerhart
University of Evansville

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