## Table of Contents

1. Getting Started

1.1 Introduction

1. 2 Using Thermodynamics

1. 3 Defining Systems

1. 4 Describing Systems and Their Behavior

1. 5 Measuring Mass, Length, Time, and Force

1.6 Specific Volume

1.7 Pressure

1.8 Temperature

1.9 Engineering Design and Analysis

1.10 Methodology for Solving Thermodynamics Problems

2. Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Reviewing Mechanical Concepts of Energy

2.3 Broadening Our Understanding of Work

2.4 Broadening Our Understanding of Energy

2.5 Energy Transfer by Heat

2.6 Energy Accounting: Energy Balance for Closed Systems

2.7 Energy Analysis of Cycles

2.8 Energy Storage

3. Evaluating Properties

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Getting Started

3.3 p-v-T Relation

3.4 Studying Phase Change

3.5 Retrieving Thermodynamic Properties

3.6 Evaluating Pressure, Specific Volume, and Temperature

3.7 Evaluating Specific Internal Energy and Enthalpy

3.8 Evaluating Properties Using Computer Software

3.9 Applying the Energy Balance Using Property Tables and Software

3.10 Introducing Specific Heats cᵥ and cᵨ

3.11 Evaluating Properties of Liquids and Solids

3.12 Generalized Compressibility Chart

3.13 Introducing the Ideal Gas Model

3.14 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases

3.15 Applying the Energy Balance Using Ideal Gas Tables, Constant Specific Heats, and Software

3.16 Polytropic Process Relations

4. Control Volume Analysis Using Energy

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Conservation of Mass for a Control Volume

4.3 Forms of the Mass Rate Balance

4.4 Applications of the Mass Rate Balance

4.5 Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume

4.6 Analyzing Control Volumes at Steady State

4.7 Nozzles and Diffusers

4.8 Turbines

4.9 Compressors and Pumps

4.10 Heat Exchangers

4.11 Throttling Devices

4.12 System Integration

4.13 Transient Analysis

5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Introducing the Second Law

5.3 Statements of the Second Law

5.4 Irreversible and Reversible Processes

5.5 Interpreting the Kelvin-Planck Statement

5.6 Applying the Second Law to Thermodynamic Cycles

5.7 Second Law Aspects of Power Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs

5.8 Second Law Aspects of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs

5.9 The Kelvin and International Temperature Scales

5.10 Maximum Performance Measures for Cycles Operating between Two Reservoirs

5.11 Carnot Cycle

5.12 Clausius Inequality

6. Using Entropy

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Entropy-A System Property

6.3 Retrieving Entropy Data

6.4 Introducing the T dS Equations

6.5 Entropy Change of an Incompressible Substance

6.6 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas

6.7 Entropy Change in Internally Reversible Processes of Closed Systems

6.8 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems

6.9 Directionality of Processes

6.10 Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes

6.11 Rate Balances for Control Volumes at Steady State

6.12 Isentropic Processes

6.13 Isentropic Efficiencies of Turbines, Nozzles, Compressors, and Pumps

6.14 Heat Transfer and Work in Internally Reversible, Steady-State Flow Processes

7. Exergy Analysis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Introducing Exergy

7.3 Conceptualizing Exergy

7.4 Exergy of a System

7.5 Closed System Exergy Balance

7.6 Exergy Rate Balance for Control Volumes at Steady State

7.7 Exergetic (Second Law) Efficiency

7.8 Thermoeconomics

8. Vapor Power Systems

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Introducing Chapter 8

8.3 Introducing Vapor Power Plants

8.4 The Rankine Cycle

8.5 Improving Performance – Superheat, Reheat, and Supercritical

8.6 Improving Performance – Regenerative Vapor Power Cycle

8.7 Other Vapor Power Cycle Aspects

8.8 Case Study: Exergy Accounting of a Vapor Power Plant

9. Gas Power Systems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Introducing Engine Terminology

9.3 Air-Standard Otto Cycle

9.4 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle

9.5 Air-Standard Dual Cycle

9.6 Modeling Gas Turbine Power Plants

9.7 Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

9.8 Regenerative Gas Turbines

9.9 Regenerative Gas Turbines with Reheat and Intercooling

9.10 Gas Turbine – Based Combined Cycles

9.11 Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power Plants

9.12 Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion

9.13 Compressible Flow Preliminaries

9.14 Analyzing One-Dimensional Steady Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers

9.15 Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers of Ideal Gases with Constant Specific Heats

10. Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Vapor Refrigeration Systems

10.3 Analyzing Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems

10.4 Selecting Refrigerants

10.5 Other Vapor-Compression Applications

10.6 Absorption Refrigeration

10.7 Heat Pump Systems

10.8 Gas Refrigeration Systems

11. Thermodynamic Relations

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Using Equations of State

11.3 Important Mathematical Relations

11.4 Developing Property Relations

11.5 Evaluating Changes in Entropy, Internal Energy, and Enthalpy

11.6 Other Thermodynamic Relations

11.7 Constructing Tables of Thermodynamic Properties

11.8 Generalized Charts for Enthalpy and Entropy

11.9 p-v-T Relations for Gas Mixtures

11.10 Analyzing Multicomponent Systems

12. Ideal Gas Mixture and Psychrometric Applications

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Describing Mixture Composition

12.3 Relating p, V, and T for Ideal Gas Mixtures

12.4 Evaluating U, H, S, and Specific Heats

12.5 Analyzing Systems Involving Mixtures

12.6 Introducing Psychrometric Principles

12.7 Psychrometers: Measuring the Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures

12.8 Psychrometric Charts

12.9 Analyzing Air-Conditioning Processes

12.10 Cooling Towers

13. Reacting Mixtures and Combustion

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Introducing Combustion

13.3 Conservation of Energy – Reacting Systems

13.4 Determining the Adiabatic Flame Temperature

13.5 Fuel Cells

13.6 Absolute Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

13.7 Conceptualizing Chemical Exergy

13.8 Standard Chemical Exergy

13.9 Applying Total Exergy

14. Chemical and Phase Equilibrium

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Introducing Equilibrium Criteria

14.3 Equation of Reaction Equilibrium

14.4 Calculating Equilibrium Compositions

14.5 Further Examples of the Use of the Equilibrium Constant

14.6 Equilibrium between Two Phases of a Pure Substance

14.7 Equilibrium of Multicomponent, Multiphase Systems

15. Appendix

Appendix: Tables, figures, and charts

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## Authors

**Michael J. Moran, Ph.D.**

*Professor Emeritus, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering*

**Howard N. Shapiro**

*Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University*

**Daisie D. Boettner**

*Brigadier General, U.S. Army Retired, Professor Emerita, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY*

**Margaret B. Bailey, Ph.D.**

*Senior Faculty Associate to the Provost for ADVANCE, PI and Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology*