## Table of Contents

1. Circuit Terminology

1.1 Historical timeline

1.2 Units, dimensions, and notation

1.3 Technology brief: Micro- and nanotechnology

1.4 Circuit representation

1.5 Electric charge and current

1.6 Voltage and power

1.7 Technology brief: Voltage: How big is big?

1.8 Circuit elements

2. Resistive Circuits

2.1 Ohm’s Law

2.2 Technology brief: Superconductivity

2.3 Kirchhoff’s Laws

2.4 Equivalent circuits

2.5 Technology brief: Resistive sensors

2.6 Wye-delta transformation

2.7 The Wheatstone Bridge

2.8 Application note: Linear versus nonlinear relationships

2.9 Technology brief: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)

2.10 Introducing multisim

3. Analysis Techniques

3.1 Linear circuits

3.2 Node-voltage method

3.3 Mesh-current method

3.4 Technology brief: Measurement of electrical properties of sea ice

3.5 By-inspection methods

3.6 Linear circuits and source superposition

3.7 Technology brief: Integrated circuit fabrication process

3.8 Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits

3.9 Comparison of analysis methods

3.10 Maximum power transfer

3.11 Technology brief: Digital and analog

3.12 Application note: Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)

3.13 Nodal analysis with Multisim

4. Operational Amplifiers

4.1 Op-amp characteristics

4.2 Technology brief: Display technologies

4.3 Negative feedback

4.4 Ideal op-amp model

4.5 Inverting amplifier

4.6 Inverting summing amplifier

4.7 Technology brief: Computer memory circuits

4.8 Difference amplifier

4.9 Voltage follower/buffer

4.10 Op-amp signal-processing circuits

4.11 Instrumentation amplifier

4.12 Digital-to-analog converters (DAC)

4.13 The MOSFET as a voltage-controlled current source

4.14 Technology brief: Circuit simulation software

4.15 Application note: Neural probes

4.16 Multisim analysis

5. RC and RL First-Order Circuits

5.1 Nonperiodic waveforms

5.2 Capacitors

5.3 Technology brief: Supercapacitors

5.4 Inductors

5.5 Response of the RC circuit

5.6 Response of the RL circuit

5.7 Technology brief: Hard disk drives (HDD)

5.8 RC op-amp circuits

5.9 Capacitive sensors

5.10 Application note: Parasitic capacitance and computer processing speed

5.11 Analyzing circuit response with multisim

6. RLC Circuits

6.1 Initial and final conditions

6.2 Introducing the series RLC circuit

6.3 Technology brief: Micromechanical sensors and actuators

6.4 Series RLC overdamped response

6.5 Series RLC critically damped response

6.6 Series RLC underdamped response

6.7 Summary of the series RLC circuit response

6.8 The parallel RLC circuit

6.9 Technology brief: RFID tags and antenna design

6.10 General solution for any second-order circuit with dc sources

6.11 Technology brief: Neural simulation and recording

6.12 Multisim analysis of circuit response

7. ac Analysis

7.1 Sinusoidal signals

7.2 Review of complex algebra

7.3 Technology brief: Touchscreens and active digitizers

7.4 Phasor domain

7.5 Phasor-domain analysis

7.6 Impedance transformations

7.7 Equivalent circuits

7.8 Phasor diagrams

7.9 Phase-shift circuits

7.10 Phasor-domain analysis techniques

7.11 Technology brief: Crystal oscillators

7.12 ac op-amp circuits

7.13 Op-amp phase shifter

7.14 Application note: Power-supply circuits

7.15 Multisim analysis of ac circuits

8. ac Power

8.1 Periodic waveforms

8.2 Average power

8.3 Technology brief: The electromagnetic spectrum

8.4 Complex power

8.5 The power factor

8.6 Maximum power transfer

8.7 Technology brief: Seeing without light

8.8 Measuring power with multisim

9. Frequency Response of Circuits and Filters

9.1 The transfer function

9.2 Scaling

9.3 Noise-cancellation headphones

9.4 Bode plots

9.5 Passive filters

9.6 Filter order

9.7 Spectral and spatial filtering

9.8 Active filters

9.9 Cascaded active filters

9.10 Electrical engineering and the audiophile

9.11 Application note: Modulation and the superheterodyne receiver

9.12 Spectral response with multisim

10. Three-Phase Circuits

10.1 Balanced three-phase generators

10.2 Source-load configurations

10.3 Y-Y configuration

10.4 Balanced networks

10.5 Minaturized energy harvesting

10.6 Power in balanced three-phase networks

10.7 Inside a power generating station

10.8 Power-factor compensation

10.9 Power measurement in three-phase circuits

11. Magnetically Coupled Circuits

11.1 Magnetic coupling

11.2 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

11.3 Transformers

11.4 Energy considerations

11.5 Ideal transformers

11.6 Three-phase transformers

12. Circuit Analysis by Laplace Transform

12.1 Unit impulse function

12.2 The Laplace transform technique

12.3 3-D TV

12.4 Properties of the Laplace transform

12.5 Circuit analysis procedure

12.6 Partial fraction expansion

12.7 Mapping the entire world in 3-D

12.8 s-domain circuit element models

12.9 s-domain circuit analysis

12.10 Multisim analysis of circuits driven by nontrivial inputs

13. Fourier Analysis Technique

13.1 Fourier series analysis technique

13.2 Fourier series representation

13.3 Bandwidth, data rate, and communication

13.4 Circuit applications

13.5 Average power

13.6 Synthetic biology

13.7 Fourier transform

13.8 Brain-machine interfaces (BMI)

13.9 Fourier transform properties and pairs

13.10 Fourier versus Laplace

13.11 Circuit analysis with Fourier transform

13.12 Multisim: Mixed-signal circuits and the sigma-delta modulator

14. Appendix

14.1 Appendix A: Symbols, quantities, and units

14.2 Appendix B: Solving simultaneous equations

14.3 Appendix C: Overview of multisim

14.4 Appendix D: Mathematical formulas

14.5 Appendix E: MATLAB and MathScript

14.6 Appendix F: MyDAQ quick reference guide

14.7 Appendix G: Answers to selected problems

## What You’ll Find In This zyBook:

### More action with less text.

- Circuits (3rd ed) published by the National Technology & Science Press, brought to life with numerous integrated activities
- Dozens of animations of concepts like solving an RLC circuit / 100s of interactive learning questions
- Embedded auto-generated / graded challenges like reading resistor values
- Homework points for student activity completion

## The zyBooks Approach

### Less text doesn’t mean less learning.

This zyEdition provides a highly-engaging interactive approach to the Circuits (3rd ed) published by the National Technology & Science Press. A zyEdition is a product developed by adding interactive items to base textbook content, to improve learning.

The interactive version embeds hundreds of learning questions, converts various figures and examples into dynamic animations. Topics include resistive circuits, analysis techniques, ac analysis, three-phase circuits, and more.

As with other zyBooks, a key benefit of such interactivity is that students learn more, and come to lecture more engaged when points are given for completing the interactive activities beforehand. Auto-graded homework also gives students better feedback and frees teaching resources for higher-value interactions.