## Table of Contents

1. Circuit Terminology

1.1 Historical timeline

1.2 Units, dimensions, and notation

1.3 Technology brief: Micro- and nanotechnology

1.4 Circuit representation

1.5 Electric charge and current

1.6 Voltage

1.7 Measuring voltage and current

1.8 Power and energy

1.9 Technology brief: Voltage: How big is big?

1.10 Electrical safety

1.11 Voltage and current sources

1.12 Passive devices

2. Resistive Circuits

2.1 Ohm’s law

2.2 Resistors

2.3 Series and parallel resistors

2.4 Nonlinear resistance

2.5 Technology brief: Superconductivity

2.6 Kirchhoff’s current law

2.7 Kirchhoff’s voltage law

2.8 Series circuits

2.9 Parallel circuits

2.10 Series/parallel circuits

2.11 Source transformations

2.12 Technology brief: Resistive sensors

2.13 Wye-delta transformation

2.14 The Wheatstone bridge

2.15 Application note: Linear versus nonlinear resistance

2.16 Technology brief: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)

2.17 Introducing Multisim

3. Analysis Techniques

3.1 Linear circuits

3.2 Node-voltage method

3.3 Supernodes

3.4 Mesh-current method

3.5 Supermeshes

3.6 Technology brief: Measurement of electrical properties of sea ice

3.7 Nodal analysis by inspection

3.8 Mesh analysis by inspection

3.9 Linear circuits and source superposition

3.10 Technology brief: integrated circuit fabrication process

3.11 Thévenin equivalent circuits

3.12 Norton equivalent circuits

3.13 Comparison of analysis methods

3.14 Maximum power transfer

3.15 Application note: Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)

3.16 Nodal analysis with Multisim

4. Operational Amplifiers

4.1 Op amp characteristics

4.2 Op amp comparators

4.3 Technology brief: Display technologies

4.4 Negative feedback

4.5 Ideal op amp model

4.6 Inverting amplifier

4.7 Inverting summing amplifiers

4.8 Noninverting summing amplifiers

4.9 Difference amplifier

4.10 Voltage follower/buffer

4.11 Op-amp signal-processing circuits

4.12 Instrumentation amplifier

4.13 Technology brief: Digital and analog

4.14 Digital-to-analog converters (DAC)

4.15 Technology brief: Circuit simulation software

4.16 Application note: Neural probes

4.17 Multisim for op amps and transistors

5. RC and RL First-Order Circuits

5.1 Nonperiodic waveforms

5.2 Capacitors

5.3 Series and parallel capacitors

5.4 Technology brief: Supercapacitors

5.5 Inductors

5.6 Series and parallel Inductors

5.7 RC natural response

5.8 RC forced response

5.9 RC Thévenin equivalents

5.10 Measuring the time constant

5.11 Response of the RL circuit

5.12 Technology brief: Hard disk drives (HDD)

5.13 RC integrator

5.14 RC differentiator

5.15 Other RC op amp circuits

5.16 Technology brief: Capacitive sensors

5.17 Application note: Parasitic capacitance and computer speed

5.18 Analyzing RC circuit transient responses with Multisim

6. RLC Circuits

6.1 Initial and final conditions

6.2 Introducing the series RLC circuit

6.3 Technology brief: Micromechanical sensors and actuators

6.4 Series RLC overdamped response

6.5 Series RLC critically damped response

6.6 Series RLC underdamped response

6.7 Summary of the series RLC circuit response

6.8 The parallel RLC circuit

6.9 Technology brief: RFID tags and antenna design

6.10 General solution for any second-order circuit with dc sources

6.11 Technology brief: Neural stimulation and recording

6.12 Multisim analysis of circuit response

7. ac Analysis

7.1 Sinusoidal signals

7.2 Review of complex algebra

7.3 Complex algebra in MATLAB

7.4 Technology brief: Touchscreens and active digitizers

7.5 Phasor domain

7.6 Phasor-domain analysis

7.7 Impedance transformations

7.8 Equivalent circuits

7.9 Component phasor diagrams

7.10 Circuit phasor diagrams

7.11 Phase-shift circuits

7.12 Phasor nodal analysis

7.13 Phasor mesh analysis

7.14 Phasor superposition and Thevenin techniques

7.15 Technology brief: Crystal oscillators

7.16 ac op-amp circuits

7.17 Op-amp frequency response

7.18 Op-amp phase shifter

7.19 Application note: Power-supply circuits

7.20 Multisim analysis of ac circuits

8. ac Power

8.1 Periodic waveforms

8.2 Average power

8.3 Technology brief: The electromagnetic spectrum

8.4 Complex power

8.5 The power factor

8.6 Power factor compensation

8.7 Maximum power transfer

8.8 Technology brief: Seeing without light

8.9 Measuring power with Multisim

9. Frequency Response of Circuits and Filters

9.1 The transfer function

9.2 Scaling

9.3 Technology brief: Noise-cancellation headphones

9.4 Decibels

9.5 Introduction to Bode plots

9.6 Bode plots, continued

9.7 RLC filters

9.8 Bandpass filters

9.9 Bandreject filters

9.10 RLC lowpass and highpass filters

9.11 Filter order

9.12 Technology brief: Spectral and spatial filtering

9.13 Active filters

9.14 Cascaded active filters

9.15 The MOSFET as a voltage-controlled current source

9.16 Technology brief: Electrical engineering and the audiophile

9.17 Application note: Modulation and the superheterodyne receiver

9.18 Spectral response with Multisim

9.19 Technology brief: Computer memory circuits

10. Three-Phase Circuits

10.1 Three-phase electricity

10.2 Source-load configurations

10.3 Y-Y configuration

10.4 Balanced networks

10.5 Unbalanced networks

10.6 Technology brief: Minaturized energy harvesting

10.7 Three phase power

10.8 Technology brief: Inside a power generating station

10.9 Three phase power-factor compensation

10.10 Power measurement in three-phase circuits

11. Magnetically Coupled Circuits

11.1 Magnetic coupling and transformers

11.2 Coupled inductors

11.3 Technology brief: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

11.4 Transformers

11.5 Transformer equivalent circuits

11.6 Transformer energy

11.7 Ideal transformers

11.8 Autotransformers

11.9 Three-phase transformers

12. Circuit Analysis by Laplace Transform

12.1 Unit impulse function

12.2 The Laplace transform technique

12.3 Technology brief: 3-D TV

12.4 Laplace transform properties

12.5 Laplace transform pairs

12.6 Circuit analysis by Laplace transform

12.7 Partial fraction expansion

12.8 Partial fraction expansion, repeated poles

12.9 Partial fraction expansion using MATLAB

12.10 Technology brief: Mapping the entire world in 3-D

12.11 s-domain circuit element models

12.12 s-domain circuit analysis

12.13 Multisim analysis of circuits driven by nontrivial inputs

13. Fourier Analysis Technique

13.1 Fourier series analysis technique

13.2 Fourier series representation

13.3 Fourier series amplitude/phase representation

13.4 Fourier series symmetry considerations

13.5 Technology brief: Bandwidth, data rate, and communication

13.6 Fourier series circuit applications

13.7 Average power

13.8 Technology brief: Synthetic biology

13.9 Fourier transform

13.10 Technology brief: Brain-machine interfaces (BMI)

13.11 Fourier transform properties

13.12 Fourier transform pairs

13.13 Parseval’s theorem

13.14 Phasor vs. Fourier vs. Laplace

13.15 Circuit analysis with the Fourier transform

13.16 Multisim: Mixed-signal circuits and the Sigma-Delta modulator

14. Two-port networks

14.1 Two-port networks and impedance parameters

14.2 Admittance parameters

14.3 Hybrid parameters

14.4 Transmission parameters

14.5 Two-port parameter conversions

14.6 Connecting two-port networks

15. Appendix

15.1 Appendix A: Symbols, quantities, and units

15.2 Appendix B: Solving simultaneous equations

15.3 Appendix C: Links to Multisim information

15.4 Appendix D: Mathematical formulas

15.5 Appendix E: MATLAB

15.6 Appendix F: MyDAQ quick reference guide

## Same Text, More Action

**NI Circuits (3e)** is the complete zyBooks version of the Circuits 3 textbook published by National Technology and Science Press that offers a highly-engaging interactive approach to learning circuit analysis and design.

- Approximately 100 dynamic animations provide insight into numerous topics
- Hundreds of new learning questions help students understand topics through incremental steps keeping students engaged and providing thorough explanations of both right and wrong answers
- Over 100 auto-generated and auto-graded Challenge Activities (“homework problems”)
- MATLAB scripts help model and graph circuit behavior

## What is a zyVersion?

zyVersions are leading print titles converted and adapted to zyBooks’ interactive learning platform, allowing for a quick and easy transition to an engaging digital experience for instructors and students.

zyBooks’ web-native content helps students visualize concepts to learn faster and more effectively than with a traditional textbook.

This zyVersion of **NI Circuits (3e)** benefits both students and instructors:

- Instructor benefits
- Customize your course by reorganizing existing content, or adding your own content
- Continuous publication model updates your course with the latest content and technologies
- Robust reporting gives you insight into students’ progress, reading and participation

- Student benefits
- Learning questions and other content serve as an interactive form of reading and provide instant feedback
- Concepts come to life through extensive animations embedded into the interactive content
- Save chapters as PDFs to reference material at any time,

even after the course has been completed

## Contributors:

**Mark Atkins**

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering Technology/ Ivy Tech Community College

**Nikitha Sambamurthy**

Content Developer / zyBooks / Ph.D. Engineering Education / Purdue University