## Table of Contents

1. Thermodynamic Properties

1.1 Thermodynamic properties and other basic concepts

1.2 Measured thermodynamic properties

1.3 Equilibrium

1.4 States and phases

1.5 Thermodynamic property tables

1.6 Summary

1.7 Problems

2. The First Law of Thermodynamics

2.1 First law of thermodynamics

2.2 Processes and paths

2.3 First law of thermodynamics for closed systems

2.4 First law of thermodynamics for open systems

2.5 Thermochemical data for \(U\) and \(H\)

2.6 Reversible processes in closed systems

2.7 Open system energy balances on process equipment

2.8 Summary

2.9 Problems

2.10 Problems (continued)

2.11 Problems (continued)

2.12 Problems (continued)

2.13 Problems (continued)

2.14 Problems (continued)

3. Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics

3.1 Directionality of processes/spontaneity

3.2 Reversible and irreversible processes and their relationship to directionality

3.3 Entropy, the thermodynamic property

3.4 The second law of thermodynamics

3.5 Molecular view of entropy

3.6 The second law of thermodynamics for closed and open systems

3.7 Calculation of \(s\) for an ideal gas

3.8 The mechanical energy balance and the Bernoulli equation

3.9 Vapor-compression power and refrigeration cycles

3.10 Exergy (availability) analysis

3.11 Summary

3.12 Problems

3.13 Problems (continued)

3.14 Problems (continued)

3.15 Problems (continued)

3.16 Problems (continued)

3.17 Problems (continued)

4. Equations of State and Intermolecular Interactions

4.1 Equations of State

4.2 Intermolecular interactions

4.3 Potential functions and chemical effects

4.4 Cubic equations of state

4.5 Virial equation of state

4.6 Equations of state for liquids and solids

4.7 Generalized compressibility charts

4.8 Mixing rules

4.9 Summary

4.10 Problems

4.11 Problems (continued)

4.12 Problems (continued)

5. The Thermodynamic Web

5.1 Types of thermodynamic properties

5.2 Thermodynamic property relations

5.3 Calculation of fundamental and derived properties using equations of state and other measured properties

5.4 Departure functions

5.5 Joule-Thompson Expansion and Liquefaction

5.6 Summary

5.7 Problems

5.8 Problems (continued)

5.9 Problems (continued)

5.10 Problems (continued)

5.11 Problems (continued)

6. Phase Equilibria I: Problem Formulation

6.1 The phase equilibria problem

6.2 Pure species phase equilibrium: Gibbs Energy

6.3 Pure species phase equilibrium: Relations between P and T

6.4 Thermodynamics of mixing

6.5 Partial molar properties

6.6 The chemical potential

6.7 Summary

6.8 Problems

6.9 Problems (continued)

6.10 Problems (continued)

6.11 Problems (continued)

7. Phase Equilibria II: Fugacity

7.1 Introducing fugacity

7.2 Fugacity in the vapor phase: Pure species

7.3 Fugacity in the vapor phase: Mixtures

7.4 Fugacity in the liquid phase: Reference states and activity coefficients

7.5 Introducing models for \(g^E\): the two-suffix Margules equation

7.6 Models for \(g^E\): Binary mixtures

7.7 Temperature and pressure dependence of \(g^E\)

7.8 Models for \(g^E\): Multicomponent mixtures

7.9 Summary

7.10 Problems

7.11 Problems (continued)

7.12 Problems (continued)

7.13 Problems (continued)

7.14 Problems (continued)

8. Phase Equilibria III: Applications

8.1 Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE): Concepts and phase diagrams

8.2 VLE: Bubble point, dew point and the lever rule

8.3 VLE: Solubility of gases in liquids

8.4 VLE: Fitting models for \(g^E\) with VLE data

8.5 VLE: Equation of state method

8.6 LLE: Liquid-liquid equilibrium

8.7 VLLE: Vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium

8.8 SLE and SSE: Solid-liquid and solid-solid equilibrium

8.9 Colligative Properties

8.10 Summary

8.11 Problems

8.12 Problems (continued)

8.13 Problems (continued)

8.14 Problems (continued)

8.15 Problems (continued)

8.16 Problems (continued)

9. Chemical Reaction Equilibria

9.1 Chemical reactions: Kinetics and thermodynamics

9.2 Equilibrium constant formulation

9.3 Using thermochemical data to calculate \(K\)

9.4 Chemical equilibrium for a single reaction

9.5 Multiple chemical reactions

9.6 Equilibrium in electrochemical processes

9.7 Reaction equilibria of point defects in crystalline solids

9.8 Summary

9.9 Problems

9.10 Problems (continued)

9.11 Problems (continued)

9.12 Problems (continued)

9.13 Problems (continued)

10. Appendix: Physical Constants, Conversion Factors, and Nomenclature

10.1 Physical constants, conversion factors, and nomenclature

10.2 Periodic Table of the Elements

11. Appendix: Physical Property Data

11.1 Critical constants, acentric factors, and antoine coefficients

11.2 Heat capacity data

11.3 Enthalpy and Gibbs Energy of Formation at 298 K and 1 bar

12. Appendix: Steam Tables

12.1 Symbols used in the steam tables

12.2 Saturated water: temperature table

12.3 Saturated water: pressure table

12.4 Saturated water: solid-vapor

12.5 Superheated water vapor

12.6 Subcooled liquid water

13. Appendix: Lee-Kesler Generalized Correlation Tables

13.1 Values for \(z^{(0)}\)

13.2 Values for \(z^{(1)}\)

13.3 Values for \(\left[\frac{h_{T_{r}, P_{r}}-h_{T_{r}, P_{r}}^{\text {ideal gas }}}{R T_{c}}\right]^{(0)}\)

13.4 Values for \(\left[\frac{h_{T_{r}, P_{r}}-h_{T_{r}, P_{r}}^{\text {ideal gas }}}{R T_{c}}\right]^{(1)}\)

13.5 Values for \(\left[\frac{s_{T_{r}, P_{r}}-s_{T_{r}, P_{r}}^{\text {ideal gas }}}{R}\right]^{(0)}\)

13.6 Values for \(\left[\frac{s_{T_{r}, P_{r}}-s_{T_{r}, P_{r}}^{\text {ideal gas }}}{R}\right]^{(1)}\)

13.7 Values for log \(\left [ \Phi ^{(0)} \right ]\)

13.8 Values for log \(\left [ \Phi ^{(1)} \right ]\)

14. Appendix: Unit Systems

14.1 Common variables used in thermodynamics and their associated units

14.2 Conversion between CGS (gaussian) units and SI units

15. Appendix: ThermoSolver Software

15.1 Software Description

15.2 Corresponding States Using The Leeâ€“Kesler Equation of State

## Same Text, More Action

Based on the original textbook, *Engineering and Chemical Thermodynamics* helps students understand and visualize thermodynamics through a qualitative discussion of the role of molecular interactions and a highly visual presentation of the material. In this zyVersion youâ€™ll find:

- Over 150 animations that allow students to watch molecules interact
- Over 500 participation questions which help to break down complex concepts
- Newly added Challenge Activities (“auto-graded homework problems”)

### Optional Challenge Activities

As an instructor, you have the ability to mark Challenge Activities as optional, which means you can indicate which Challenge Activities your students need to complete in order to meet your course requirements. Those marked as optional won’t contribute to point totals in reports or assignments.

## What is a zyVersion?

zyVersions are leading print titles converted and adapted to zyBooks’ interactive learning platform, allowing for a quick and easy transition to an engaging digital experience for instructors and students.

zyBooks’ web-native content helps students visualize concepts to learn faster and more effectively than with a traditional textbook.

This zyVersion of **Engineering and Chemical Thermodynamics** benefits both students and instructors:

- Instructor benefits
- Customize your couse by reorganizing existing content or adding your own content
- Continuous publication model updates your course with the latest content and technologies
- Robust reporting gives you insight into students’ progress, reading and participation

- Student benefits
- Learning questions and other content serve as an interactive form of reading and provide instant feedback
- Concepts come to life through extensive animations embedded into the interactive content
- Save chapters as PDFs to reference material at any time, even after course completion

## Authors

**Milo D. Koretsky
**

*Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Professor of Education, McDonnell Family Bridge Professorship, Tufts University*

**Matthew Liberatore**

*Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Toledo*

## Contributor

**Nikitha Sambamurthy
**

*Editorial Director / zyBooks*