Table of Contents

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Historical Background 4

1.3 Engine Cycles 6

1.4 Engine Performance Parameters 10

1.5 Engine Configurations 21

1.6 Examples of Internal Combustion Engines 25

1.7 Alternative Powertrain Technology 29

1.8 Further Reading 33

1.9 References 33

1.10 Homework 33

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Gas Cycle Energy Addition

2.3 Constant Volume Energy Addition

2.4 Constant Pressure Energy Addition

2.5 Limited Pressure Cycle

2.6 Miller Cycle

2.7 Ideal Four-Stroke Process and Residual Fraction

2.8 Finite Energy Release

2.9 References

2.10 Homework

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Properties of Ideal Gas Mixtures

3.3 Liquid–Vapor–Gas Mixtures

3.4 Stoichiometry

3.5 Chemical Equilibrium

3.6 Low Temperature Combustion Modeling

3.7 Chemical Equilibrium Using Lagrange Multipliers

3.8 Chemical Equilibrium Using Equilibrium Constants

3.9 Isentropic Compression and Expansion

3.10 Chemical Kinetics

3.11 References

3.12 Homework

4.1 Introduction

4.2 First-Law Analysis of Combustion

4.3 Second-Law Analysis of Combustion

4.4 Fuel–Air Otto Cycle

4.5 Four-Stroke Fuel–Air Otto Cycle

4.6 Limited-Pressure Fuel–Air Cycle

4.7 Two-Zone Finite-Energy Release Model

4.8 Compression Ignition Engine Fuel–Air Model

4.9 Comparison of Fuel–Air Cycles with Actual Spark and Compression Ignition Cycles

4.10 Further Reading

4.11 Homework

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Flow Through Intake and Exhaust Valves

5.3 Intake and Exhaust Manifold Flow

5.4 Airflow in Two-Stroke Engines

5.5 Superchargers and Turbochargers

5.6 Further Reading

5.7 References

5.8 Homework

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Fuel Injection – Spark Ignition

6.3 Fuel Injection – Compression Ignition

6.4 Fuel Sprays

6.5 Gaseous Fuel Injection

6.6 Prechambers

6.7 Carburetion

6.8 Large-Scale In-Cylinder Flow

6.9 In-Cylinder Turbulence

6.10 Further Reading

6.11 References

6.12 Homework

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines

7.3 Abnormal Combustion (Knock) in Spark-Ignition Engines

7.4 Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines

7.5 Low Temperature Combustion

7.6 Further Reading

7.7 References

7.8 Homework

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nitrogen Oxides

8.3 Carbon Monoxide

8.4 Hydrocarbons

8.5 Particulates

8.6 Emissions Regulation and Control

8.7 Further Reading

8.8 References

8.9 Homework

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Refining

9.3 Hydrocarbon Chemistry

9.4 Thermodynamic Properties of Fuel Mixtures

9.5 Gasoline Fuels

9.6 Alternative Fuels for Spark-Ignition Engines

9.7 Diesel Fuels

9.8 Further Reading

9.9 Homework

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Friction Coefficient

10.3 Engine Oils

10.4 Friction Power and Mean Effective Pressure

10.5 Friction Measurements

10.6 Friction Scaling Parameters

10.7 Piston and Ring Friction

10.8 Journal Bearings

10.9 Valve Train Friction

10.10 Accessory Friction

10.11 Pumping Mean Effective Pressure

10.12 Overall Engine Friction Mean Effective Pressure

10.13 Further Reading 432

10.14 References 432

10.15 Homework 433

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Engine Cooling Systems

11.3 Engine Energy Balance

11.4 Heat Transfer Measurements

11.5 Heat Transfer Modeling

11.6 Heat Transfer Correlations

11.7 Radiation Heat Transfer

11.8 Heat Transfer in the Exhaust System

11.9 Mass Loss or Blowby

11.10 Further Reading

11.11 References

11.12 Homework

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Instrumentation

12.3 Combustion Analysis

12.4 Exhaust Gas Analysis

12.5 Control Systems in Engines

12.6 Vehicle Emissions Testing

12.7 Further Reading

12.8 References

12.9 Homework

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Effect of Engine Size, Bore, and Stroke

13.3 Effect of Engine Speed

13.4 Effect of Air–Fuel Ratio and Load

13.5 Engine Performance Maps

13.6 Effect of Ignition and Injection Timing

13.7 Effect of Compression Ratio

13.8 Vehicle Performance Simulation

13.9 Further Reading

13.10 References

13.11 Homework

A Conversion Factors and Physical Constants

B Physical Properties of Air

C Thermodynamic Property Tables for Various Ideal Gases

D Curve-Fit Coefficients for Thermodynamic Properties of Various Fuels and Ideal Gases

E Detailed Thermodynamic and Fluid Flow Analyses

E.1 Thermodynamic Derivatives

E.2 Numerical Solution of Equilibrium Combustion Equations

E.3 Isentropic Compression/Expansion with Known Δ

E.4 Isentropic Compression/Expansion with Known Δ

E.5 Constant Volume Combustion

E.6 Quality of Exhaust Products

E.7 Finite Difference Form of the Reynolds Slider Equation

E.8 Reference

F Computer Programs

F.1 Volume.m

F.2 Velocity.m

F.3 BurnFraction.m

F.4 FiniteHeatRelease.m

F.5 FiniteHeatMassLoss.m

F.6 CIHeatRelease.m

F.7 FourStrokeOtto.m

F.8 RunFarg.m

F.9 farg.m

F.10 fuel.m

F.11 RunEcp.m

F.12 ecp.m

F.13 AdiabaticFlameTemp.m

F.14 OttoFuelAir.m

F.15 FourStrokeFuelAir.m

F.16 TwoZoneFuelAir.m

F.17 Fuel_Injected.m

F.18 LimitPressFuelAir.m

F.19 ValveFlow.m

F.20 Droplet.m

F.21 Kinetic.m

F.22 Soot.m

F.23 TwoZoneNO.m

F.24 RingPressure.m

F.25 Friction.m

F.26 HeatTransfer.m


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A comprehensive resource covering the foundational thermal-fluid sciences and engineering analysis techniques used to design and develop internal combustion engines

This new 4th edition includes brand new material on:

  • New engine technologies and concepts
  • Effects of engine speed on performance and emissions
  • Fluid mechanics of intake and exhaust flow in engines
  • Turbocharger and supercharger performance analysis
  • Chemical kinetic modeling, reaction mechanisms, and emissions
  • Advanced combustion processes including low temperature combustion
  • Piston, ring and journal bearing friction analysis


Allan T. Kirkpatrick