## Table of Contents

1. Introduction To Bridge Engineering

1.1 A Bridge Is the Key Element in a Transportation System

1.2 Bridge Engineering in the United States

1.2.1 Stone Arch Bridges

1.2.2 Wooden Bridges

1.2.3 Metal Truss Bridges

1.2.4 Suspension Bridges

1.2.5 Metal Arch Bridges

1.2.6 Reinforced Concrete Bridges

1.2.7 Girder Bridges

1.2.8 Closing Remarks

1.3 Bridge Engineer—Planner, Architect, Designer, Constructor, and Facility Manager

References

Problems

2. Specifications and Bridge Failures

2.1 Bridge Specifications

2.2 Implication of Bridge Failures on Practice

2.2.1 Silver Bridge, Point Pleasant, West Virginia, December 15, 1967

2.2.2 I-5 and I-210 Interchange, San Fernando, California, February 9, 1971

2.2.3 Sunshine Skyway, Tampa Bay, Florida, May 9, 1980

2.2.4 Mianus River Bridge, Greenwich, Connecticut, June 28, 1983

2.2.5 Schoharie Creek Bridge, Amsterdam, New York, April 5, 1987

2.2.6 Cypress Viaduct, Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989

2.2.7 I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1, 2007

2.2.8 Failures during Construction

2.2.9 Failures Continue and Current Data

2.2.10 Evolving Bridge Engineering Practice

References

Problems

3.Bridge Aesthetics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Nature of the Structural Design Process

3.2.1 Description and Justification

3.2.2 Public and Personal Knowledge

3.2.3 Regulation

3.2.4 Design Process

3.3 Aesthetics in Bridge Design

3.3.1 Definition of Aesthetics

3.3.2 Qualities of Aesthetic Design

3.3.3 Practical Guidelines for Medium- and Short-Span Bridges

3.3.4 Computer Modeling

3.3.5 Web References

3.3.6 Closing Remarks on Aesthetics

References

Problems

4. Bridge Types and Selection

4.1 Main Structure below the Deck Line

4.2 Main Structure above the Deck Line

4.3 Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line

4.4 Closing Remarks on Bridge Types

4.5 Selection of Bridge Type

4.5.1 Factors To Be Considered

4.5.2 Bridge Types Used for Different Span Lengths

4.5.3 Closing Remarks

References

Problems

5. Design Limit States

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Development of Design Procedures

5.2.1 Allowable Stress Design

5.2.2 Variability of Loads

5.2.3 Shortcomings of Allowable Stress Design

5.2.4 Load and Resistance Factor Design

5.3 Design Limit States

5.3.1 General

5.3.2 Service Limit State

5.3.3 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State

5.3.4 Strength Limit State

5.3.5 Extreme Event Limit State

5.3.6 Construction Limit States

5.4 Closing Remarks

References

Problems

6.Principles of Probabilistic Design

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 Frequency Distribution and Mean Value

6.1.2 Standard Deviation

6.1.3 Probability Density Functions

6.1.4 Bias Factor

6.1.5 Coefficient of Variation

6.1.6 Probability of Failure

6.1.7 Safety Index *𝛽 *

6.2 Calibration of LRFD Code

6.2.1 Overview of the Calibration Process

6.2.2 Calibration Using Reliability Theory

6.2.3 Calibration of Fitting with ASD

6.3 Closing Remarks

References

Problems

7. Geometric Design Considerations

7.1 Introduction to Geometric Roadway Considerations

7.2 Roadway Widths

7.3 Vertical Clearances

7.4 Interchanges

References

Problem

8. Loads

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Gravity Loads

8.2.1 Permanent Loads

8.2.2 Transient Loads

8.3 Lateral Loads

8.3.1 Fluid Forces

8.3.2 Seismic Loads

8.3.3 Ice Forces

8.4 Forces Due to Deformations

8.4.1 Temperature

8.4.2 Creep and Shrinkage

8.4.3 Settlement

8.5 Collision Loads

8.5.1 Vessel Collision

8.5.2 Rail Collision

8.5.3 Vehicle Collision

8.6 Blast Loading

8.7 Summary

References

Problems

9. Influence Functions and Girder-Line Analysis

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Definition

9.3 Statically Determinate Beams

9.3.1 Concentrated Loads

9.3.2 Uniform Loads

9.4 Muller–Breslau Principle

9.4.1 Betti’s Theorem

9.4.2 Theory of Muller–Breslau Principle

9.4.3 Qualitative Influence Functions

9.5 Statically Indeterminate Beams

9.5.1 Integration of Influence Functions

9.5.2 Relationship between Influence Functions

9.5.3 Muller–Breslau Principle for End Moments

9.5.4 Automation by Matrix Structural Analysis

9.6 Normalized Influence Functions

9.7 AASHTO Vehicle Loads

9.8 Influence Surfaces

9.9 Summary

References

Problems

10. System Analysis—Introduction

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Safety of Methods

10.2.1 Equilibrium for Safe Design

10.2.2 Stress Reversal and Residual Stress

10.2.3 Repetitive Overloads

10.2.4 Fatigue and Serviceability

10.3 Summary

References

Problem

11. System Analysis—Gravity Loads

11.1 Slab Girder Bridges

11.2 Slab Bridges

11.3 Slabs in Slab Girder Bridges

11.4 Box Girder Bridges

11.5 Closing Remarks

References

Problems

12. System Analysis—Lateral, Temperature, Shrinkage, and Prestress Loads

12.1 Lateral Load Analysis

12.1.1 Wind Loads

12.1.2 Seismic Load Analysis

12.2 Temperature, Shrinkage, and Prestress

12.2.1 General

12.2.2 Prestressing

12.2.3 Temperature Effects

12.2.4 Shrinkage and Creep

12.3 Closing Remarks

References

**Part III Concrete Bridges**

13. Reinforced Concrete Material Response and Properties

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Material Response

13.3 Constituents of Fresh Concrete

13.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete

13.4.1 Short-Term Properties of Concrete

13.4.2 Long-Term Properties of Concrete

13.5 Properties of Steel Reinforcement

13.5.1 Nonprestressed Steel Reinforcement

13.5.2 Prestressing Steel

References

Problems

14. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Members

14.1 Limit States

14.1.1 Service Limit State

14.1.2 Fatigue Limit State

14.1.3 Strength Limit State

14.1.4 Extreme Event Limit State

14.2 Flexural Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members

14.2.1 Depth to Neutral Axis for Beams with Bonded Tendons

14.2.2 Depth to Neutral Axis for Beams with Unbonded Tendons

14.2.3 Nominal Flexural Strength

14.2.4 Ductility, Maximum Tensile Reinforcement, and Resistance Factor Adjustment

14.2.5 Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

14.2.6 Loss of Prestress

14.3 Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members

14.3.1 Variable-Angle Truss Model

14.3.2 Modified Compression Field Theory

14.3.3 Shear Design Using Modified Compression Field Theory

14.4 Closing Remarks

References

Problems

15. Concrete Barrier Strength and Deck Design

15.1 Concrete Barrier Strength

15.1.1 Strength of Uniform Thickness Barrier Wall

15.1.2 Strength of Variable Thickness Barrier Wall

15.1.3 Crash Testing of Barriers

15.2 Concrete Deck Design

References

Problems

16. Concrete Design Examples

16.1 Solid Slab Bridge Design

16.2 T-Beam Bridge Design

16.3 Prestressed Girder Bridge

References

17. Steel Bridges

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Material Properties

17.2.1 Steelmaking Process: Traditional

17.2.2 Steelmaking Process: Mini Mills

17.2.3 Steelmaking Process: Environmental Considerations

17.2.4 Production of Finished Products

17.2.5 Residual Stresses

17.2.6 Heat Treatments

17.2.7 Classification of Structural Steels

17.2.8 Effects of Repeated Stress (Fatigue)

17.2.9 Brittle Fracture Considerations

17.3 Summary

References

Problem

18. Limit States and General Requirements

18.1 Limit States

18.1.1 Service Limit State

18.1.2 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State

18.1.3 Strength Limit States

18.1.4 Extreme Event Limit State

18.2 General Design Requirements

18.2.1 Effective Length of Span

18.2.2 Dead-Load Camber

18.2.3 Minimum Thickness of Steel

18.2.4 Diaphragms and Cross Frames

18.2.5 Lateral Bracing

References

Problems

19. Steel Component Resistance

19.1 Tensile Members

19.1.1 Types of Connections

19.1.2 Tensile Resistance—Specifications

19.1.3 Strength of Connections for Tension Members

19.2 Compression Members

19.2.1 Column Stability—Behavior

19.2.2 Inelastic Buckling—Behavior

19.2.3 Compressive Resistance—Specifications

19.2.4 Connections for Compression Members

19.3 I-Sections in Flexure

19.3.1 General

19.3.2 Yield Moment and Plastic Moment

19.3.3 Stability Related to Flexural Resistance

19.3.4 Limit States

19.3.5 Summary of I-Sections in Flexure

19.3.6 Closing Remarks on I-Sections in Flexure

19.4 Shear Resistance of I-Sections

19.4.1 Beam Action Shear Resistance

19.4.2 Tension Field Action Shear Resistance

19.4.3 Combined Shear Resistance

19.4.4 Shear Resistance of Unstiffened Webs

19.5 Shear Connectors

19.5.1 Fatigue Limit State for Stud Connectors

19.5.2 Strength Limit State for Stud Connectors

19.6 Stiffeners

19.6.1 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners

19.6.2 Bearing Stiffeners

References

Problems

20. Steel Design Examples

20.1 Noncomposite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge

20.2 Composite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge

20.3 Multiple-Span Composite Steel Plate Girder Beam Bridge

20.3.1 Problem Statement Example

References

Appendix A Influence Functions For Deck Analysis

Appendix B Transverse Deck Moments Per AASHTO Appendix A4

Appendix C Metal Reinforcement Information

Appendix D Refined Estimate of Time-Dependent Losses

References

Appendix E NCHRP 12-33 Project Team

Task Groups

Appendix F Live-Load Distribution—Rigid Method

Index

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### A comprehensive introduction to the latest construction methods and materials in bridge design, revised to reflect the eighth edition of the AASHTO LRFD specifications and including:

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## Authors

**Richard M. Barker **

** Jay A. Puckett**