Table of Contents

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Kant

1.3 Hegel

1.4 Pragmatism

1.5 Husserl and Phenomenology

1.6 Radical Constructivism

1.7 Conclusion

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Scientific Method and the Scientific Revolution

2.3 The Physical Sciences in the Modern Era

2.4 The Scientific Method in the Modern Era

2.5 Extending the Scientific Method to Other Disciplines

2.6 Conclusion

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Biology

3.3 Ecology

3.4 Conclusion

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Functionalism

4.3 Interpretive Social Theory

4.4 The Sociology of Radical Change

4.5 Postmodernism and Poststructuralism

4.6 Integrationist Social Theory

4.7 Luhmann’s Social Systems Theory

4.8 Action Research

4.9 Conclusion

5.1 Introduction

5.2 von Bertalanffy and General System Theory

5.3 von Bertalanffy’s Collaborators and the Society for General Systems Research

5.4 Miller and the Search for Isomorphisms at Different System Levels

5.5 Boulding, Emergence and the Centrality of ‚ÄúThe Image‚ÄĚ

5.6 The Influence of General Systems Theory

5.7 Conclusion

6.1 Introduction

6.2 First Order Cybernetics

6.3 British Cybernetics

6.4 Second Order Cybernetics

6.5 Conclusion

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Chaos Theory

7.3 Dissipative Structures

7.4 Complex Adaptive Systems

7.5 Complexity Theory and Management

7.6 Complexity Theory and Systems Thinking

7.7 Conclusion

8.1 Introduction 151

8.2 Critical or ‚ÄúSecond Order‚ÄĚ Systems Thinking

8.3 Toward a System of Systems Methodologies

8.3.1 Preliminary Considerations

8.3.2 Beer’s Classification of Systems

8.3.3 The Original ‚ÄúSystem of Systems Methodologies‚ÄĚ

8.3.4 Snowden’s Cynefin Framework

8.3.5 A Revised ‚ÄúSystem of Systems Methodologies‚ÄĚ

8.4 The Development of Applied Systems Thinking

8.5 Systems Thinking and the Management of Complexity

8.6 Conclusion

9.1 Prologue

9.2 Description of Hard Systems Thinking

9.2.1 Historical Development

9.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

9.2.3 Methodology

9.2.4 Methods

9.2.5 Developments in Hard Systems Thinking

9.3 Hard Systems Thinking in Action

9.4 Critique of Hard Systems Thinking

9.5 Comments

9.6 The Value of Hard Systems Thinking to Managers

9.7 Conclusion

10.1 Prologue

10.2 Description of the Vanguard Method

10.2.1 Historical Development

10.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

10.2.3 Methodology

10.2.4 Methods

10.3 The Vanguard Method in Action

10.3.1 Check

10.3.2 Plan

10.3.3 Do

10.4 Critique of the Vanguard Method

10.5 Comments

10.6 The Value of the Vanguard Method to Managers

10.7 Conclusion

11.1 Prologue

11.2 Description of System Dynamics

11.2.1 Historical Development

11.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

11.2.3 Methodology

11.2.4 Methods

11.3 System Dynamics in Action

11.4 Critique of System Dynamics

11.5 Comments

11.6 The Value of System Dynamics to Managers

11.7 Conclusion

12.1 Prologue

12.2 Description of Socio Technical Systems Thinking

12.2.1 Historical Development

12.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

12.2.3 Methodology

12.2.4 Methods

12.3 Socio Technical Systems Thinking in Action

12.4 Critique of Socio Technical Systems Thinking

12.5 Comments

12.6 The Value of Socio Technical Systems Thinking to Managers

12.7 Conclusion

13.1 Prologue

13.2 Description of Organizational Cybernetics

13.2.1 Historical Development

13.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

13.2.3 Methodology

13.2.4 Methods

13.3 Organizational Cybernetics in Action

13.4 Critique of Organizational Cybernetics and the Viable System Model

13.5 Comments

13.6 The Value of Organizational Cybernetics to Managers

13.7 Conclusion

14.1 Prologue

14.2 Description of Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing

14.2.1 Historical Development

14.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

14.2.3 Methodology

14.2.4 Methods

14.3 Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing in Action

14.4 Critique of Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing

14.5 Comments

14.6 The Value of Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing to Managers

14.7 Conclusion

15.1 Prologue

15.2 Description of Interactive Planning

15.2.1 Historical Development

15.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

15.2.3 Methodology

15.2.4 Methods

15.3 Interactive Planning in Action

15.4 Critique of Interactive Planning

15.5 Comments

15.6 The Value of Interactive Planning to Managers

15.7 Conclusion

16.1 Prologue

16.2 Description of Soft Systems Methodology

16.2.1 Historical Development

16.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

16.2.3 Methodology

16.2.4 Methods

16.3 Soft Systems Methodology in Action

16.4 Critique of Soft Systems Methodology

16.5 Comments

16.6 The Value of Soft Systems Methodology to Managers 442

16.7 Conclusion 443

17.1 Prologue

17.2 Description of Team Syntegrity

17.2.1 Historical Development

17.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

17.2.3 Methodology

17.2.4 Methods

17.3 Team Syntegrity in Action

17.4 Critique of Team Syntegrity

17.5 Comments

17.6 The Value of Team Syntegrity to Managers

17.7 Conclusion

18.1 Prologue

18.2 Description of Critical Systems Heuristics

18.2.1 Historical Development

18.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

18.2.3 Methodology

18.2.4 Methods

18.3 Critical Systems Heuristics in Action

18.4 Critique of Critical Systems Heuristics

18.5 Comments

18.6 The Value of Critical Systems Heuristics to Managers

18.7 Conclusion

19.1 Introduction

19.2 The Origins of Critical Systems Theory

19.2.1 Critical Awareness

19.2.2 Pluralism

19.2.3 Emancipation or Improvement

19.3 Critical Systems Theory and the Management Sciences

19.4 Conclusion

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Total Systems Intervention

20.2.1 Background

20.2.2 Multimethodology

20.2.3 Case Study

20.2.4 Critique

20.3 Systemic Intervention

20.3.1 Background

20.3.2 Multimethodology

20.3.3 Case Study

20.3.4 Critique

20.4 Critical Realism and Multimethodology

20.4.1 Background

20.4.2 Multimethodology

20.4.3 Case Study

20.4.4 Critique

20.5 Conclusion

21.1 Prologue

21.2 Description of Critical Systems Practice

21.2.1 Historical Development

21.2.2 Philosophy and Theory

21.2.3 Multimethodology

21.2.4 Methodologies

21.2.5 Methods

21.3 Critical Systems Practice in Action

21.3.1 North Yorkshire Police

21.3.2 Kingston Gas Turbines

21.3.3 Hull University Business School

21.4 Critique of Critical Systems Practice

21.5 Comments

21.6 The Value of Critical Systems Practice to Managers

21.7 Conclusion

zyText are leading print textbooks available in full on the zyBooks platform. Each zyText has been adapted to include learning questions and answer-specific feedback allowing for a quick and easy transition to an engaging digital experience for instructors and students.

What You’ll Find In This zyText:

  • ¬†Incorporates the complete text
  • Over 150 learning questions with answer-specific feedback
  • Customization tools letting you add, remove or reorder chapters and sections
  • Options to align the book directly to your syllabus ‚Äď including videos, images, text
  • Analytics that help you measure student engagement
  • Ability to hold students accountable for reading before class
  • A competitive low price point
  • Students can keep a PDF version of key chapters at no additional cost

Instructors: Interested in an evaluation copy for your class?

From the winner of the INCOSE Pioneer Award 2022

  • Leaders of international bodies such as the UN, OECD, UNESCO and WHO have all declared
    that systems thinking is an essential leadership skill for managing the complexity of the
    economic, social and environmental issues that confront decision makers. Systems thinking
    must be implemented more generally, and on a wider scale, to address these issues.
  • Over 25 case studies focused on the development of systems thinking and of major efforts
    to apply the approach in real-world interventions.
  • Encourages the widespread use of critical systems practice as a means of ensuring
    responsible leadership in a complex world.

Author

Michael C. Jackson