Table of Contents

1.1 Historical perspective
1.2 Materials science and engineering
1.3 Why study materials science and engineering?
1.4 Classification of materials
1.5 Advanced materials
1.6 Modern materials’ needs
1.7 Summary
1.8 References
1.9 Questions and problems

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Atomic structure: Fundamental concepts
2.3 Atomic structure: Electrons in atoms
2.4 Atomic structure: The periodic table
2.5 Atomic bonding in solids: Bonding forces and energies
2.6 Atomic bonding in solids: Primary interatomic bonds
2.7 Atomic bonding in solids: Secondary bonding or van der waals bonding
2.8 Atomic bonding in solids: Mixed bonding
2.9 Atomic bonding in solids: Molecules
2.10 Atomic bonding in solids: Bonding type-material classification correlations
2.11 Summary
2.12 References
2.13 Questions and problems

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Crystal structures: Fundamental concepts
3.3 Crystal structures: Unit cells
3.4 Crystal structures: Metallic crystal structures
3.5 Crystal structures: Density computations
3.6 Crystal structures: Polymorphism and allotropy
3.7 Crystal structures: Crystal systems
3.8 Crystallographic points, directions and planes: Point coordinates
3.9 Crystallographic points, directions and planes: Crystallographic directions
3.10 Crystallographic points, directions and planes: Crystallographic planes
3.11 Crystallographic points, directions and planes: Linear and planar densities
3.12 Crystallographic points, directions and planes: Close-packed crystal structures
3.13 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Single crystals
3.14 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Polycrystalline materials
3.15 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Anisotropy
3.16 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: X-ray diffraction: Determination of crystal structures
3.17 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Noncrystalline solids
3.18 Summary
3.19 References
3.20 Questions and problems

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Point defects: Vacancies and self-interstitials
4.3 Point defects: Impurities in solids
4.4 Point defects: Specification of composition
4.5 Miscellaneous imperfections: Dislocations-linear defects
4.6 Miscellaneous imperfections: Interfacial defects
4.7 Miscellaneous imperfections: Bulk or volume defects
4.8 Miscellaneous imperfections: Atomic vibrations
4.9 Microscopic examination: Basic concepts of microscopy
4.10 Microscopic examination: Microscopic techniques
4.11 Microscopic examination: Grain-size determination
4.12 Summary
4.13 References
4.14 Questions and problems

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Diffusion mechanisms
5.3 Fick’s first law
5.4 Fick’s second law–nonsteady-state diffusion
5.5 Factors that influence diffusion
5.6 Diffusion in semiconducting materials
5.7 Other diffusion paths
5.8 Summary
5.9 References
5.10 Questions and problems

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Concepts of stress and strain
6.3 Stress-strain behavior
6.4 Anelasticity
6.5 Elastic properties of materials
6.6 Tensile properties
6.7 True stress and strain
6.8 Elastic recovery after plastic deformation
6.9 Compressive, shear, and torsional deformations
6.10 Hardness
6.11 Property variability and design/safety factors: Variability of material properties
6.12 Property variability and design/safety factors: Design/safety factors
6.13 Summary
6.14 References
6.15 Questions and problems

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Dislocations and plastic deformation: Basic concepts
7.3 Dislocations and plastic deformation: Characteristics of dislocations
7.4 Dislocations and plastic deformation: Slip systems
7.5 Dislocations and plastic deformation: Slip in single crystals
7.6 Dislocations and plastic deformation: Plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials
7.7 Dislocations and plastic deformation: Deformation by twinning
7.8 Mechanisms of strengthening in metals: Strengthening by grain size reduction
7.9 Mechanisms of strengthening in metals: Solid-solution strengthening
7.10 Mechanisms of strengthening in metals: Strain hardening
7.11 Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth: Recovery
7.12 Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth: Recrystallization
7.13 Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth: Grain growth
7.14 Summary
7.15 References
7.16 Questions and problems

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Fracture: Fundamentals of fracture
8.3 Fracture: Ductile fracture
8.4 Fracture: Brittle fracture
8.5 Fracture: Principles of fracture mechanics
8.6 Fracture: Fracture toughness testing
8.7 Fatigue: Cyclic stresses
8.8 Fatigue: The S-N curve
8.9 Fatigue: Crack initiation and propagation
8.10 Fatigue: Factors that affect fatigue life
8.11 Fatigue: Environmental effects
8.12 Creep: Generalized creep behavior
8.13 Creep: Stress and temperature effects
8.14 Creep: Data extrapolation methods
8.15 Creep: Alloys for high-temperature use
8.16 Summary
8.17 References
8.18 Questions and problems

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Solubility limit
9.3 Phases
9.4 Microstructure
9.5 Phase equilibria
9.6 One-component (or unary) phase diagrams
9.7 Binary phase diagrams: Binary isomorphous systems
9.8 Binary phase diagrams: Interpretation of phase diagrams
9.9 Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys
9.10 Mechanical properties of isomorphous alloys
9.11 Binary eutectic systems
9.12 Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys
9.13 Equilibrium diagrams having intermediate phases or compounds
9.14 Eutectoid and peritectic reactions
9.15 Congruent phase transformations
9.16 Ceramic and ternary phase diagrams
9.17 The Gibbs phase rule
9.18 The iron-carbon system: The iron-iron carbide (\(Fe-Fe_{3}\)) phase diagram
9.19 The iron-carbon system: Development of microstructure in iron-carbon alloys
9.20 The iron-carbon system: The influence of other alloying elements
9.21 Summary
9.22 References
9.23 Questions and problems

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Phase transformations: Basic concepts
10.3 Phase transformations: The kinetics of phase transformations
10.4 Phase transformations: Metastable versus equilibrium states
10.5 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Isothermal transformation diagrams
10.6 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Continuous-cooling transformation diagrams
10.7 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Mechanical behavior of iron-carbon alloys
10.8 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Tempered martensite
10.9 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Review of phase transformations and mechanical properties for iron-carbon alloys
10.10 Summary
10.11 References
10.12 Questions and problems

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Ferrous alloys
11.3 Nonferrous alloys
11.4 Forming operations
11.5 Casting
11.6 Miscellaneous techniques
11.7 3D printing (additive manufacturing)
11.8 Annealing processes
11.9 Heat treatment of steels
11.10 Precipitation hardening
11.11 Summary
11.12 References
11.13 Questions and problems

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Crystal structures
12.3 Silicate ceramics
12.4 Carbon
12.5 Imperfections in ceramics
12.6 Diffusion in ionic materials
12.7 Ceramic phase diagrams
12.8 Brittle fracture of ceramics
12.9 Stress-strain behavior
12.10 Mechanisms of plastic deformation
12.11 Miscellaneous mechanical considerations
12.12 Summary
12.13 References
12.14 Questions and problems

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Glasses
13.3 Glass-ceramics
13.4 Clay products
13.5 Refractories
13.6 Abrasives
13.7 Cements
13.8 Ceramic biomaterials
13.9 Carbons
13.10 Advanced ceramics
13.11 Fabrication and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics
13.12 Fabrication and processing of clay products
13.13 Powder pressing
13.14 Tape casting
13.15 3D printing of ceramic materials
13.16 Summary
13.17 References
13.18 Questions and problems

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Hydrocarbon molecules
14.3 Polymer molecules
14.4 The chemistry of polymer molecules
14.5 Molecular weight
14.6 Molecular shape
14.7 Molecular structure
14.8 Molecular configurations
14.9 Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers
14.10 Copolymers
14.11 Polymer crystallinity
14.12 Polymer crystals
14.13 Defects in polymers
14.14 Diffusion in polymeric materials
14.15 Summary
14.16 References
14.17 Questions and problems

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Stress-strain behavior
15.3 Macroscopic deformation
15.4 Viscoelastic deformation
15.5 Fracture of polymers
15.6 Miscellaneous mechanical characteristics
15.7 Deformation of semicrystalline polymers
15.8 Factors that influence the mechanical properties of semicrystalline polymers
15.9 Deformation of elastomers
15.10 Crystallization
15.11 Melting
15.12 The glass transition
15.13 Melting and glass transition temperatures
15.14 Factors that influence melting and glass transition temperatures
15.15 Plastics
15.16 Elastomers
15.17 Fibers
15.18 Miscellaneous applications
15.19 Polymeric biomaterials
15.20 Advanced polymeric materials
15.21 Polymerization
15.22 Polymer additives
15.23 Forming techniques for plastics
15.24 Fabrication of elastomers
15.25 Fabrication of fibers and films
15.26 3D printing of polymers
15.27 Summary
15.28 References
15.29 Questions and problems

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Large-particle composites
16.3 Dispersion-strengthened composites
16.4 Influence of fiber length
16.5 Influence of fiber orientation and concentration
16.6 The fiber phase
16.7 The matrix phase
16.8 Polymer-matrix composites
16.9 Metal-matrix composites
16.10 Ceramic-matrix composites
16.11 Carbon-carbon composites
16.12 Hybrid composites
16.13 Processing of fiber-reinforced composites
16.14 Laminar composites
16.15 Sandwich panels
16.16 Nanocomposites
16.17 Summary
16.18 References
16.19 Questions and problems

17.1 Introduction
17.2 Electrochemical considerations
17.3 Corrosion rates
17.4 Prediction of corrosion rates
17.5 Passivity
17.6 Environmental effects
17.7 Forms of corrosion
17.8 Corrosion environments
17.9 Corrosion prevention
17.10 Oxidation
17.11 Swelling and dissolution
17.12 Bond rupture
17.13 Weathering
17.14 Summary
17.15 References
17.16 Questions and problems

18.1 Introduction
18.2 Ohm’s law
18.3 Electrical conductivity
18.4 Electronic and ionic conduction
18.5 Energy band structures in solids
18.6 Conduction in terms of band and atomic bonding models
18.7 Electron mobility
18.8 Electrical resistivity of metals
18.9 Electrical characteristics of commercial alloys
18.10 Intrinsic semiconduction
18.11 Extrinsic semiconduction
18.12 The temperature dependence of carrier concentration
18.13 Factors that affect carrier mobility
18.14 The Hall effect
18.15 Semiconductor devices
18.16 Conduction in ionic materials
18.17 Electrical properties of polymers
18.18 Capacitance
18.19 Field vectors and polarization
18.20 Types of polarization
18.21 Frequency dependence of the dielectric constant
18.22 Dielectric strength
18.23 Dielectric materials
18.24 Ferroelectricity
18.25 Piezoelectricity
18.26 Summary
18.27 References
18.28 Questions and problems

19.1 Introduction
19.2 Heat capacity
19.3 Thermal expansion
19.4 Thermal conductivity
19.5 Thermal stresses
19.6 Summary
19.7 References
19.8 Questions and problems

20.1 Introduction
20.2 Basic concepts
20.3 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism
20.4 Ferromagnetism
20.5 Antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism
20.6 The influence of temperature on magnetic behavior
20.7 Domains and hysteresis
20.8 Magnetic anisotropy
20.9 Soft magnetic materials
20.10 Hard magnetic materials
20.11 Magnetic storage
20.12 Superconductivity
20.13 Summary
20.14 References
20.15 Questions and problems

21.1 Introduction
21.2 Electromagnetic radiation
21.3 Light interactions with solids
21.4 Atomic and electronic interactions
21.5 Refraction
21.6 Reflection
21.7 Absorption
21.8 Transmission
21.9 Color
21.10 Opacity and translucency in insulators
21.11 Luminescence
21.12 Photoconductivity
21.13 Lasers
21.14 Optical fibers in communications
21.15 Summary
21.16 References
21.17 Questions and problems

22.1 Introduction
22.2 Environmental and societal considerations
22.3 Recycling issues in materials science and engineering
22.4 Summary
22.5 References

23.1 The international system of units (SI)

24.1 Properties of selected engineering materials

25.1 Costs and relative costs for selected engineering materials

26.1 Repeat unit structures for common polymers

27.1 Glass transition and melting temperatures for common polymeric materials

28.1 Characteristics of Selected Elements

29.1 Values of Selected Physical Constants, Unit Abbreviations, SI Multiple and Submultiple Prefixes

30.1 Unit Conversion Factors, Periodic Table of the Elements

31.1 Preface
31.2 Feedback
31.3 Acknowledgments
31.4 List of symbols

Same Text, More Action

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William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah

David G. Rethwisch
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Iowa

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