Table of Contents

1.1 Historical perspective

1.2 Materials science and engineering

1.3 Why study materials science and engineering?

1.4 Classification of materials

1.5 Advanced materials

1.6 Modern materials’ needs

1.7 Summary

1.8 References

1.9 Questions and problems

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Atomic structure: Fundamental concepts

2.3 Atomic structure: Electrons in atoms

2.4 Atomic structure: The periodic table

2.5 Atomic bonding in solids: Bonding forces and energies

2.6 Atomic bonding in solids: Primary interatomic bonds

2.7 Atomic bonding in solids: Secondary bonding or van der Waals bonding

2.8 Atomic bonding in solids: Mixed bonding

2.9 Atomic bonding in solids: Molecules

2.10 Atomic bonding in solids: Bonding type-material classification correlations

2.11 Summary

2.12 Equation summary

2.13 List of symbols

2.14 References

2.15 Questions and problems

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Crystal structures: Fundamental concepts

3.3 Crystal structures: Unit cells

3.4 Crystal structures: Metallic crystal structures

3.5 Crystal structures: Density computations—metals

3.6 Crystal structures: Ceramic crystal structures

3.7 Crystal structures: Density computations—ceramics

3.8 Crystal structures: Silicate ceramics

3.9 Crystal structures: Carbon

3.10 Crystal structures: Polymorphism and allotropy

3.11 Crystal structures: Crystal systems

3.12 Crystallographic points, directions, and planes: Point coordinates

3.13 Crystallographic points, directions, and planes: Crystallographic directions

3.14 Crystallographic points, directions, and planes: Crystallographic planes

3.15 Crystallographic points, directions, and planes: Linear and planar densities

3.16 Crystallographic points, directions, and planes: Close-packed crystal structures

3.17 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Single crystals

3.18 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Polycrystalline materials

3.19 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Anisotropy

3.20 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: X-ray diffraction: Determination of crystal structures

3.21 Crystalline and noncrystalline materials: Noncrystalline solids

3.22 Summary

3.23 Equation summary

3.24 List of symbols

3.25 References

3.26 Questions and problems

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Hydrocarbon molecules

4.3 Polymer molecules

4.4 The chemistry of polymer molecules

4.5 Molecular weight

4.6 Molecular shape

4.7 Molecular structure

4.8 Molecular configurations

4.9 Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers

4.10 Copolymers

4.11 Polymer crystallinity

4.12 Polymer crystals

4.13 Summary

4.14 Equation summary

4.15 List of symbols

4.16 References

4.17 Questions and problems

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Point defects: Point defects in metals

5.3 Point defects: Point defects in ceramics

5.4 Point defects: Impurities in solids

5.5 Point defects: Point defects in polymers

5.6 Specification of composition

5.7 Miscellaneous imperfections: Dislocations—linear defects

5.8 Miscellaneous imperfections: Interfacial defects

5.9 Miscellaneous imperfections: Bulk or volume defects

5.10 Miscellaneous imperfections: Atomic vibrations

5.11 Microscopic examination: Basic concepts of microscopy

5.12 Microscopic examination: Microscopic techniques

5.13 Microscopic examination: Grain-size determination

5.14 Summary

5.15 Equation summary

5.16 List of symbols

5.17 References

5.18 Questions and problems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Diffusion mechanisms

6.3 Fick’s first law

6.4 Fick’s second law—nonsteady-state diffusion

6.5 Factors that influence diffusion

6.6 Diffusion in semiconducting materials

6.7 Other diffusion paths

6.8 Diffusion in ionic and polymeric materials

6.9 Summary

6.10 Equation summary

6.11 List of symbols

6.12 References

6.13 Questions and problems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Concepts of stress and strain

7.3 Elastic deformation: Stress-strain behavior

7.4 Elastic deformation: Anelasticity

7.5 Elastic deformation: Elastic properties of materials

7.6 Mechanical behavior—metals: Tensile properties

7.7 Mechanical behavior—metals: True stress and strain

7.8 Mechanical behavior—metals: Elastic recovery after plastic deformation

7.9 Mechanical behavior—metals: Compressive, shear, and torsional deformations

7.10 Mechanical behavior—ceramics: Flexural strength

7.11 Mechanical behavior—ceramics: Elastic behavior

7.12 Mechanical behavior—ceramics: Influence of porosity on the mechanical properties of ceramics

7.13 Mechanical behavior—polymers: Stress-strain behavior

7.14 Mechanical behavior—polymers: Macroscopic deformation

7.15 Mechanical behavior—polymers: Viscoelastic deformation

7.16 Other mechanical property considerations: Hardness

7.17 Other mechanical property considerations: Hardness of ceramic materials

7.18 Other mechanical property considerations: Tear strength and hardness of polymers

7.19 Property variability and design/safety factors: Variability of material properties

7.20 Property variability and design/safety factors: Design/safety factors

7.21 Summary

7.22 Equation summary

7.23 List of symbols

7.24 References

7.25 Questions and problems

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Historical

8.3 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Basic concepts of dislocations

8.4 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Characteristics of dislocations

8.5 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Slip systems

8.6 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Slip in single crystals

8.7 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Plastic deformation of polycrystalline metals

8.8 Deformation mechanisms for metals: Deformation by twinning

8.9 Mechanisms of strengthening in metals: Strengthening by grain size reduction

8.10 Mechanisms of strengthening in metals: Solid-solution strengthening

8.11 Mechanisms of strengthening in metals: Strain hardening

8.12 Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth: Recovery

8.13 Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth: Recrystallization

8.14 Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth: Grain growth

8.15 Deformation mechanisms for ceramic materials: Crystalline ceramics

8.16 Deformation mechanisms for ceramic materials: Noncrystalline ceramics

8.17 Mechanisms of deformation and for strengthening of polymers: Deformation of semicrystalline polymers

8.18 Mechanisms of deformation and for strengthening of polymers: Factors that influence the mechanical properties of semicrystalline polymers

8.19 Mechanisms of deformation and for strengthening of polymers: Deformation of elastomers

8.20 Summary

8.21 Equation summary

8.22 List of symbols

8.23 References

8.24 Questions and problems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fracture: Fundamentals of fracture

9.3 Fracture: Ductile fracture

9.4 Fracture: Brittle fracture

9.5 Fracture: Principles of fracture mechanics

9.6 Fracture: Brittle fracture of ceramics

9.7 Fracture: Fracture of polymers

9.8 Fracture: Fracture toughness testing

9.9 Fatigue: Cyclic stresses

9.10 Fatigue: The S-N curve

9.11 Fatigue: Fatigue in polymeric materials

9.12 Fatigue: Crack initiation and propagation

9.13 Fatigue: Factors that affect fatigue life

9.14 Fatigue: Environmental effects

9.15 Creep: Generalized creep behavior

9.16 Creep: Stress and temperature effects

9.17 Creep: Data extrapolation methods

9.18 Creep: Alloys for high-temperature use

9.19 Creep: Creep in ceramic and polymeric materials

9.20 Summary

9.21 Equation summary

9.22 List of symbols

9.23 References

9.24 Questions and problems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Definitions and basic concepts: Solubility limit

10.3 Definitions and basic concepts: Phases

10.4 Definitions and basic concepts: Microstructure

10.5 Definitions and basic concepts: Phase equilibria

10.6 Definitions and basic concepts: One-component (or unary) phase diagrams

10.7 Binary phase diagrams: Binary isomorphous systems

10.8 Binary phase diagrams: Interpretation of phase diagrams

10.9 Binary phase diagrams: Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys

10.10 Binary phase diagrams: Mechanical properties of isomorphous alloys

10.11 Binary phase diagrams: Binary eutectic systems

10.12 Binary phase diagrams: Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys

10.13 Binary phase diagrams: Equilibrium diagrams having intermediate phases or compounds

10.14 Binary phase diagrams: Eutectoid and peritectic reactions

10.15 Binary phase diagrams: Congruent phase transformations

10.16 Binary phase diagrams: Ceramic phase diagrams

10.17 Ternary phase diagrams

10.18 The Gibbs phase rule

10.19 The iron-carbon system: The iron-iron carbide (Fe-Fe₃C) phase diagram

10.20 The iron-carbon system: Development of microstructure in iron-carbon alloys

10.21 The iron-carbon system: The influence of other alloying elements

10.22 Summary

10.23 Equation summary

10.24 List of symbols

10.25 References

10.26 Questions and problems

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Phase transformations in metals: Basic concepts

11.3 Phase transformations in metals: The kinetics of phase transformations

11.4 Phase transformations in metals: Metastable versus equilibrium states

11.5 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Isothermal transformation diagrams

11.6 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Continuous-cooling transformation diagrams

11.7 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Mechanical behavior of iron-carbon alloys

11.8 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Tempered martensite

11.9 Microstructural and property changes in iron-carbon alloys: Review of phase transformations and mechanical properties for iron-carbon alloys

11.10 Precipitation hardening: Heat treatments

11.11 Precipitation hardening: Mechanism of hardening

11.12 Precipitation hardening: Miscellaneous considerations

11.13 Crystallization, melting, and glass transition phenomena in polymers: Crystallization

11.14 Crystallization, melting, and glass transition phenomena in polymers: Melting

11.15 Crystallization, melting, and glass transition phenomena in polymers: The glass transition

11.16 Crystallization, melting, and glass transition phenomena in polymers: Melting and glass transition temperatures

11.17 Crystallization, melting, and glass transition phenomena in polymers: Factors that influence melting and glass transition temperatures

11.18 Summary

11.19 Equation summary

11.20 List of symbols

11.21 References

11.22 Questions and problems

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Electrical conduction: Ohm’s law

12.3 Electrical conduction: Electrical conductivity

12.4 Electrical conduction: Electronic and ionic conduction

12.5 Electrical conduction: Energy band structures in solids

12.6 Electrical conduction: Conduction in terms of band and atomic bonding models

12.7 Electrical conduction: Electron mobility

12.8 Electrical conduction: Electrical resistivity of metals

12.9 Electrical conduction: Electrical characteristics of commercial alloys

12.10 Semiconductivity: Intrinsic semiconduction

12.11 Semiconductivity: Extrinsic semiconduction

12.12 Semiconductivity: The temperature dependence of carrier concentration

12.13 Semiconductivity: Factors that affect carrier mobility

12.14 Semiconductivity: The hall effect

12.15 Semiconductivity: Semiconductor devices

12.16 Electrical conduction in ionic ceramics and in polymers: Conduction in ionic materials

12.17 Electrical conduction in ionic ceramics and in polymers: Electrical properties of polymers

12.18 Dielectric behavior: Capacitance

12.19 Dielectric behavior: Field vectors and polarization

12.20 Dielectric behavior: Types of polarization

12.21 Dielectric behavior: Frequency dependence of the dielectric constant

12.22 Dielectric behavior: Dielectric strength

12.23 Dielectric behavior: Dielectric materials

12.24 Other electrical characteristics of materials: Ferroelectricity

12.25 Other electrical characteristics of materials: Piezoelectricity

12.26 Summary

12.27 Equation summary

12.28 List of symbols

12.29 References

12.30 Questions and problems

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Types of metal alloys: Ferrous alloys

13.3 Types of metal alloys: Nonferrous alloys

13.4 Types of ceramics: Glasses

13.5 Types of ceramics: Glass-ceramics

13.6 Types of ceramics: Clay products

13.7 Types of ceramics: Refractories

13.8 Types of ceramics: Abrasives

13.9 Types of ceramics: Cements

13.10 Types of ceramics: Ceramic biomaterials

13.11 Types of ceramics: Carbons

13.12 Types of ceramics: Advanced ceramics

13.13 Types of polymers: Plastics

13.14 Types of polymers: Elastomers

13.15 Types of polymers: Fibers

13.16 Types of polymers: Miscellaneous applications

13.17 Types of polymers: Polymeric biomaterials

13.18 Types of polymers: Advanced polymeric materials

13.19 Summary

13.20 References

13.21 Questions and problems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Fabrication of metals: Forming operations

14.3 Fabrication of metals: Casting

14.4 Fabrication of metals: Miscellaneous techniques

14.5 Fabrication of metals: 3D printing (additive manufacturing)

14.6 Thermal processing of metals: Annealing processes

14.7 Thermal processing of metals: Heat treatment of steels

14.8 Fabrication of ceramic materials: Fabrication and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics

14.9 Fabrication of ceramic materials: Fabrication and processing of clay products

14.10 Fabrication of ceramic materials: Powder pressing

14.11 Fabrication of ceramic materials: Tape casting

14.12 Fabrication of ceramic materials: 3D printing of ceramic materials

14.13 Synthesis and fabrication of polymers: Polymerization

14.14 Synthesis and fabrication of polymers: Polymer additives

14.15 Synthesis and fabrication of polymers: Forming techniques for plastics

14.16 Synthesis and fabrication of polymers: Fabrication of elastomers

14.17 Synthesis and fabrication of polymers: Fabrication of fibers and films

14.18 Synthesis and fabrication of polymers: 3D printing of polymers

14.19 Summary

14.20 References

14.21 Questions and problems

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Particle-reinforced composites: Large-particle composites

15.3 Particle-reinforced composites: Dispersion-strengthened composites

15.4 Fiber-reinforced composites: Influence of fiber length

15.5 Fiber-reinforced composites: Influence of fiber orientation and concentration

15.6 Fiber-reinforced composites: The fiber phase

15.7 Fiber-reinforced composites: The matrix phase

15.8 Fiber-reinforced composites: Polymer-matrix composites

15.9 Fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-matrix composites

15.10 Fiber-reinforced composites: Ceramic-matrix composites

15.11 Fiber-reinforced composites: Carbon-carbon composites

15.12 Fiber-reinforced composites: Hybrid composites

15.13 Fiber-reinforced composites: Processing of fiber-reinforced composites

15.14 Structural composites: Laminar composites

15.15 Structural composites: Sandwich panels

15.16 Structural composites: Nanocomposites

15.17 Summary

15.18 Equation summary

15.19 List of symbols

15.20 References

15.21 Questions and problems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Corrosion of metals: Electrochemical considerations

16.3 Corrosion of metals: Corrosion rates

16.4 Corrosion of metals: Prediction of corrosion rates

16.5 Corrosion of metals: Passivity

16.6 Corrosion of metals: Environmental effects

16.7 Corrosion of metals: Forms of corrosion

16.8 Corrosion of metals: Corrosion environments

16.9 Corrosion of metals: Corrosion prevention

16.10 Corrosion of metals: Oxidation

16.11 Degradation of polymers: Swelling and dissolution

16.12 Degradation of polymers: Bond rupture

16.13 Degradation of polymers: Weathering

16.14 Summary

16.15 Equation summary

16.16 List of symbols

16.17 References

16.18 Questions and problems

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Heat capacity

17.3 Thermal expansion

17.4 Thermal conductivity

17.5 Thermal stresses

17.6 Summary

17.7 Equation summary

17.8 List of symbols

17.9 References

17.10 Questions and problems

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Basic concepts

18.3 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism

18.4 Ferromagnetism

18.5 Antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism

18.6 The influence of temperature on magnetic behavior

18.7 Domains and hysteresis

18.8 Magnetic anisotropy

18.9 Soft magnetic materials

18.10 Hard magnetic materials

18.11 Magnetic storage

18.12 Superconductivity

18.13 Summary

18.14 Equation summary

18.15 List of symbols

18.16 References

18.17 Questions and problems

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Basic concepts: Electromagnetic radiation

19.3 Basic concepts: Light interactions with solids

19.4 Basic concepts: Atomic and electronic interactions

19.5 Optical properties of nonmetals: Refraction

19.6 Optical properties of nonmetals: Reflection

19.7 Optical properties of nonmetals: Absorption

19.8 Optical properties of nonmetals: Transmission

19.9 Optical properties of nonmetals: Color

19.10 Optical properties of nonmetals: Opacity and translucency in insulators

19.11 Applications of optical phenomena: Luminescence

19.12 Applications of optical phenomena: Photoconductivity

19.13 Applications of optical phenomena: Lasers

19.14 Applications of optical phenomena: Optical fibers in communications

19.15 Summary

19.16 Equation summary

19.17 List of symbols

19.18 References

19.19 Questions and problems

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Environmental and societal considerations

20.3 Recycling issues in materials science and engineering

20.4 Summary

20.5 References

20.6 Questions and problems

21.1 The International System of Units (SI)

22.1 Properties of selected engineering materials

23.1 Costs and relative costs for selected engineering materials

24.1 Repeat unit structures for common polymers

25.1 Glass transition and melting temperatures for common polymeric materials

26.1 Characteristics of selected elements

27.1 Values of selected physical constants

28.1 Periodic table of the elements

Same Text, More Action

Based on the 6th edition of Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach, this zyVersion contains the complete text of the original book plus new interactive animations, learning questions, and challenge activities to engage the student.

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If you prefer a metals-first approach, with polymers and ceramics treated separately in different chapters, check out Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction (10e).

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William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah

David G. Rethwisch
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Iowa


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