Table of Contents

1.1 History of the Airbreathing Jet Engine, a Twentieth-Century Invention—The Beginning

1.2 Innovations in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1.3 New Engine Concepts

1.4 New Vehicles

1.5 Summary

1.6 Roadmap for the Second Edition



2.1 Introduction

2.2 A Brief Review of Thermodynamics

2.3 Isentropic Process and Isentropic Flow

2.4 Conservation Principles for Systems and Control Volumes

2.5 Speed of Sound & Mach Number

2.6 Stagnation State

2.7 Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow

2.8 Area–Mach Number Relationship

2.9 Sonic Throat

2.10 Waves in Supersonic Flow

2.11 Normal Shocks

2.12 Oblique Shocks

2.13 Conical Shocks

2.14 Expansion Waves

2.15 Frictionless, Constant-Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

2.16 Adiabatic Flow of a Calorically Perfect Gas in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction

2.17 Friction (Drag) Coefficient Cf and D’Arcy Friction Factor fD

2.18 Dimensionless Parameters

2.19 Fluid Impulse

2.20 Summary of Fluid Impulse


Problems 103

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Installed Thrust—Some Bookkeeping Issues on Thrust and Drag

3.3 Engine Thrust Based on the Sum of Component Impulse

3.4 Rocket Thrust

3.5 Airbreathing Engine Performance Parameters

3.6 Modern Engines, Their Architecture and Some Performance Characteristics

3.7 Summary



4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Gas Generator

4.3 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

4.4 Analysis of a Mixed-Exhaust Turbofan Engine with an Afterburner

4.5 The Turboprop Engine

4.6 Summary



5.1 Introduction

5.2 Cycle Analysis

5.3 Power and Efficiency

5.4 Engine Components and Classifications

5.5 Scaling of Aircraft Reciprocating Engines

5.6 Aircraft Engine Systems

5.7 Electric Engines

5.8 Propellers and Reduction Gears



6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Flight Mach Number and Its Impact on Inlet Duct Geometry

6.3 Diffusers

6.4 An Ideal Diffuser

6.5 Real Diffusers and Their Stall Characteristics

6.6 Subsonic Diffuser Performance

6.7 Subsonic Cruise Inlet

6.8 Transition Ducts

6.9 An Interim Summary for Subsonic Inlets

6.10 Supersonic Inlets

6.11 Normal Shock Inlets

6.12 External Compression Inlets

6.13 Variable Geometry—External Compression Inlets

6.14 Mixed-Compression Inlets

6.15 Supersonic Inlet Types and Their Performance—A Review

6.16 Standards for Supersonic Inlet Recovery

6.17 Exhaust Nozzle

6.18 Gross Thrust

6.19 Nozzle Adiabatic Efficiency

6.20 Nozzle Total Pressure Ratio

6.21 Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR) and Critical Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPRcrit.)

6.22 Relation Between Nozzle Figures of Merit, n and n

6.23 A Convergent Nozzle or a De Laval?

6.24 The Effect of Boundary Layer Formation on Nozzle Internal Performance

6.25 Nozzle Exit Flow Velocity Coefficient

6.26 Effect of Flow Angularity on Gross Thrust

6.27 Nozzle Gross Thrust Coefficient Cfg

6.28 Overexpanded Nozzle Flow—Shock Losses

6.29 Nozzle Area Scheduling, A8 and A9/A8

6.30 Nozzle Exit Area Scheduling, A9/A8

6.31 Nozzle Cooling

6.32 Thrust Reverser and Thrust Vectoring

6.33 Hypersonic Nozzle

6.34 Exhaust Mixer and Gross Thrust Gain in a Mixed-Flow Turbofan Engine

6.35 Noise

6.36 Nozzle-Turbine (Structural) Integration

6.37 Summary of Exhaust Systems



7.1 Introduction

7.2 Laws Governing Mixture of Gases

7.3 Chemical Reaction and Flame Temperature

7.4 Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Composition

7.5 Chemical Kinetics

7.6 Combustion Chamber

7.7 Combustion-Generated Pollutants

7.8 Aviation Fuels

7.9 Alternative “Drop-In” Jet Fuels (AJFs)

7.10 Combustion Instability: Screech and Rumble

7.11 Summary


Problems 518

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Geometry

8.3 Rotor and Stator Frames of Reference

8.4 The Euler Turbine Equation

8.5 Axial-Flow Versus Radial-Flow Machines

8.6 Axial-Flow Compressors and Fans

8.7 Compressor Performance Map

8.8 Compressor Instability – Stall and Surge

8.9 Multistage Compressors and Their Operating Line

8.10 Multistage Compressor Stalling Pressure Rise and Stall Margin

8.11 Multistage Compressor Starting Problem

8.12 The Effect of Inlet Flow Condition on Compressor Performance

8.13 Isometric and Cutaway Views of Axial-Flow Compressor Hardware

8.14 Compressor Design Parameters and Principles

8.15 Summary



9.1 Introduction

9.2 Centrifugal Compressors

9.3 Radial Diffuser

9.4 Inducer

9.5 Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) and Inducer-Less Impellers

9.6 Impeller Exit Flow and Blockage Effects

9.7 Efficiency and Performance

9.8 Summary



10.1 Introduction

10.2 Axial-Flow Turbines

10.3 Turbine Performance Map

10.4 The Effect of Cooling on Turbine Efficiency

10.5 Turbine Blade Profile Design

10.6 Stresses in Turbine Blades and Disks and Useful Life Estimation

10.7 Axial-Flow Turbine Design and Practices

10.8 Gas Turbine Design Summary

10.9 Summary



11.1 Introduction

11.2 Engine (Steady-State) Component Matching

11.3 Engine Off-Design Analysis

11.4 Unchocked Nozzles and Other Off-Design Iteration Strategies

11.5 Principles of Engine Performance Testing

11.6 Summary



12.1 Introduction

12.2 From Takeoff to Earth Orbit

12.3 Chemical Rockets

12.4 Chemical Rocket Applications

12.5 New Parameters in Rocket Propulsion

12.6 Thrust Coefficient, CF

12.7 Characteristic Velocity, c*

12.8 Flight Performance

12.9 Multistage Rockets

12.10 Propulsive and Overall Efficiencies

12.11 Chemical Rocket Combustion Chamber

12.12 Thrust Chamber Cooling

12.13 Combustor Volume and Shape

12.14 Rocket Nozzles

12.15 High-Speed Airbreathing Engines

12.16 Rocket-Based Airbreathing Propulsion

12.17 Summary



A. U.S. Standard Atmosphere 905

B. Isentropic Table 909

C. Normal Shock Table 927

D. Rayleigh Flow 941

E. Fanno Flow 951

F. Prandtl–Meyer Function and Mach Angle 961

G. Oblique Shock Charts 965

H. Conical Shock Charts 971

I. Cascade Data 975

J. Web Sites 981

K. 10-Minute Quizzes 983

L. Some “Rules of Thumb” and Trends in Aircraft Propulsion 1001


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A leading resource on sustainable aviation, alternative jet fuels, and new propulsion systems


This book tackles the impact of aviation on the environment at the engine component level, as well as the role of propulsion system integration on fuel burn. It also discusses combustion emissions, including greenhouse gases, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Alternative jet fuels, like second generation biofuels and hydrogen, are also presented as well as aviation noise from airframe to engine and its impact on community noise in landing and takeoff cycles;  promising new technologies for propulsion and power, like the ultra-high bypass (UHB) turbofan and hybrid-electric and electric propulsion systems.


Saeed Farokhi