## Table of Contents

1. Fundamentals

1.1 Introduction

1.2 What is a Robot?

1.3 Classification of Robots

1.4 What is Robotics?

1.5 History of Robotics

1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots

1.7 Robot Components

1.8 Robot Degrees of Freedom

1.9 Robot Joints

1.10 Robot Coordinates

1.11 Robot Reference Frames

1.12 Programming Modes

1.13 Robot Characteristics

1.14 Robot Workspace

1.15 Robot Languages

1.16 Robot Applications

1.17 Other Robots and Applications

1.18 Collaborative Robots

1.19 Social Issues

1.20 Summary

References

Problems

2.Kinematics of Serial Robots: Position Analysis

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Robots as Mechanisms

2.3 Conventions

2.4 Matrix Representation

2.5 Homogeneous Transformation Matrices

2.6 Representation of Transformations

2.7 Inverse of Transformation Matrices

2.8 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots

2.9 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position

2.10 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Orientation

2.11 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position and Orientation

2.12 Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots

2.13 The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots

2.13.1 General Solution for Articulated Robot Arms

2.14 Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots

2.15 Dual-Arm Cooperating Robots

2.16 Degeneracy and Dexterity

2.17 The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg Representation

2.18 Design Projects

2.19 Summary

References

Problems

3. Robot Kinematics with Screw-Based Mechanics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 What is a Screw?

3.3 Rotation about a Screw Axis

3.4 Homogenous Transformations about a General Screw Axis

3.5 Successive Screw-Based Transformations

3.6 Forward and Inverse Position Analysis of an Articulated Robot

3.7 Design Projects

3.8 Summary

Additional Reading

Problems

4. Kinematics Analysis of Parallel Robots

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Physical Characteristics of Parallel Robots

4.3 The Denavit-Hartenberg Approach vs. the Direct Kinematic Approach

4.4 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Planar Parallel Robots

4.5 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Spatial Parallel Robots

4.6 Other Parallel Robot Configurations

4.7 Design Projects

4.8 Summary

References

Problems

5. Differential Motions and Velocities

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Differential Relationships

5.3 The Jacobian

5.4 Differential versus Large-Scale Motions

5.5 Differential Motions of a Frame versus a Robot

5.6 Differential Motions of a Frame

5.7 Interpretation of the Differential Change

5.8 Differential Changes between Frames

5.9 Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame

5.10 Calculation of the Jacobian

5.11 How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator

5.12 The Inverse Jacobian

5.13 Calculation of the Jacobian with Screw-Based Mechanics

5.14 The Inverse Jacobian for the Screw-Based Method

5.15 Calculation of the Jacobians of Parallel Robots

5.16 Design Projects

5.17 Summary

References

Problems

6. Dynamic and Force Analysis

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview

6.3 Effective Moments of Inertia

6.4 Dynamic Equations for Multiple-DOF Robots

6.5 Static Force Analysis of Robots

6.6 Transformation of Forces and Moments between Coordinate Frames

6.7 Design Project

6.8 Summary

References

Problems

7. Trajectory Planning

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Path vs. Trajectory

7.3 Joint-Space vs. Cartesian-Space Descriptions

7.4 Basics of Trajectory Planning

7.5 Joint-Space Trajectory Planning

7.6 Cartesian-Space Trajectories

7.7 Continuous Trajectory Recording

7.8 Design Project

7.9 Summary

References

Problems

8. Motion Control Systems

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Basic Components and Terminology

8.3 Block Diagrams

8.4 System Dynamics

8.5 Laplace Transform

8.6 Inverse Laplace Transform

8.7 Transfer Functions

8.8 Block Diagram Algebra

8.9 Characteristics of First-Order Transfer Functions

8.10 Characteristics of Second-Order Transfer Functions

8.11 Characteristic Equation: Pole/Zero Mapping

8.12 Steady-State Error

8.13 Root Locus Method

8.14 Proportional Controllers

8.15 Proportional-Plus-Integral Controllers

8.16 Proportional-Plus-Derivative Controllers

8.17 Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (PID)

8.18 Lead and Lag Compensators

8.19 Bode Diagram and Frequency-Domain Analysis

8.20 Open-Loop vs. Closed-Loop Applications

8.21 Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Systems

8.22 State-Space Control Methodology

8.23 Digital Control

8.24 Nonlinear Control Systems

8.25 Electromechanical Systems Dynamics: Robot Actuation and Control

8.26 Design Projects

8.27 Summary

References

Problems

9. Actuators and Drive Systems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Characteristics of Actuating Systems

9.3 Comparison of Actuating Systems

9.4 Hydraulic Actuators

9.5 Pneumatic Devices

9.6 Electric Motors

9.7 Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors

9.8 Magnetostrictive Actuators

9.9 Shape-Memory Type Metals

9.10 Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAPs)

9.11 Speed Reduction

9.12 Other Systems

9.13 Design Projects

9.14 Summary

References

Problems

10. Sensors

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Sensor Characteristics

10.3 Sensor Utilization

10.4 Position Sensors

10.4.7 Global Positioning System (GPS)

10.4.8 Other Devices

10.5 Velocity Sensors

10.5.1 Encoders

10.5.2 Tachometers

10.5.3 Differentiation of Position Signal

10.6 Acceleration Sensors

10.7 Force and Pressure Sensors

10.8 Torque Sensors

10.9 Microswitches

10.10 Visible Light and Infrared Sensors

10.11 Touch and Tactile Sensors

10.12 Proximity Sensors

10.13 Range Finders

10.14 Sniff Sensors

10.15 Vision Systems

10.16 Voice-Recognition Devices

10.17 Voice Synthesizers

10.18 Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device

10.19 Design Project

10.20 Summary

References

11. Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Basic Concepts

11.3 Fourier Transform and Frequency Content of a Signal

11.4 Frequency Content of an Image: Noise and Edges

11.5 Resolution and Quantization

11.6 Sampling Theorem

11.7 Image-Processing Techniques

11.8 Histograms of Images

11.9 Thresholding

11.10 Spatial Domain Operations Convolution Mask

11.11 Connectivity

11.12 Noise Reduction

11.13 Edge Detection

11.14 Sharpening an Image

11.15 Hough Transform

11.16 Segmentation

11.17 Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting

11.18 Binary Morphology Operations

11.19 Gray Morphology Operations

11.20 Image Analysis

11.21 Object Recognition by Features

11.22 Depth Measurement with Vision Systems

11.23 Specialized Lighting

11.24 Image Data Compression

11.25 Color Images

11.26 Heuristics

11.27 Applications of Vision Systems

11.28 Design Project

11.29 Summary

References

Problems

12. Fuzzy Logic Control

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fuzzy Control: What is Needed

12.3 Crisp Values vs. Fuzzy Values

12.4 Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Truth and Membership

12.5 Fuzzification

12.6 Fuzzy Inference Rules

12.7 Defuzzification

12.8 Simulation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller

12.9 Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics

12.10 Design Project

12.11 Summary

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**What You’ll Find in this zyText**

- Incorporates the complete text
- Over 150 learning questions with answer-specific feedback
- Customization tools letting you add, remove or reorder chapters and sections
- Options to align the book directly to your syllabus – including videos, images, text
- Analytics that help you measure student engagement
- Ability to hold students accountable for reading before class
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## Authors

**Saeed B. Niku**