Tables from appendix of “Material and Energy Balances” (Matthew Liberatore). Copyright © “zyBooks” 2016, 2017, 2018.

Section 10.1 – Unit Conversions
Table 10.1.1: Common unit prefixes.
Table 10.1.2: Common unit conversions.

Section 10.2 – Nomenclature
Table 10.2.1: Nomenclature.

Section 10.3 – Finding data and correlations
Section 10.4 – Periodic table of the elements
Table 10.4.1: Periodic table of the elements.

Section 10.5 – Physical properties
Table 10.5.1: Physical properties for many common components.
Table 10.5.2: Physical properties for many common components 2.
Table 10.5.3: Physical properties for many common components 3.

Section 10.6 – Properties of subcooled liquid water
Table 10.6.1: Subcooled liquid water table 1.
Table 10.6.2: Subcooled liquid water table part 2.

Section 10.7 – Saturated water – temperature table
Table 10.7.1: Saturated water – temperature table 1.
Table 10.7.2: Saturated water – temperature table 2.

Section 10.8 – Saturated water – pressure table
Table 10.8.1: Saturated water – pressure table 1.
Table 10.8.2: Saturated water – pressure table 2.

Section 10.9 – Superheated vapor water/steam table
Table 10.9.1: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 1.
Table 10.9.2: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 2.
Table 10.9.3: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 3.
Table 10.9.4: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 4.

Section 10.10 – Vapor pressure
Table 10.10.1: Vapor Pressure.

Section 10.11 – Heat capacity
Table 10.11.1: Heat capacity data for common components.
Table 10.11.2: Heat capacity data for some components.

Section 10.12 – Heat of solution for three common solutions
Table 10.12.1: Heat of solution.


Section 10.1 – Unit Conversions

Units conversions and prefixes.

Table 10.1.1: Common unit prefixes.
PrefixAbbreviationConversionExample
Microμ1 unit = 1,000,000 μ-unit1 m = 1,000,000 μm
Millim1 unit = 1000 m-unit1 g = 1000 mg
Centic1 unit = 100 c-unit1 m = 100 cm
Kilok1 unit = 0.001 k-unit1000 g = 1 kg
Table 10.1.2: Common unit conversions.
Type of unitEquivalent values
Mass1 kg = 2.20462 lbm

1 lbm = 453.593 g

Length1 m = 3.2808 ft

1 ft = 12 in

1 ft = 30.48 cm

Volume1 m3 = 1000 L

1 m3= 35.3145 ft3

1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal

Force1 N = 1 kg·m/s2

1 N = 0.22481 lbf

1 lbf = 32.174 lbm·ft/s2

Pressure1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 Pa = 1.4504 X 10-4 lbf/in.2 (psi)

1 atm = 1.01325 x 105 Pa

1 atm = 1.01325 bar

1 atm = 760 mmHg at 0°C

1 atm = 14.696 psi

1 atm = 33.9 ft H2O at 4 °C

1 atm = 29.921 in. Hg at 0 °C

Energy1 J = 1 N·m

1 J = 1 Pa·m3

1 kJ = 0.94782 BTU

1 kWh = 3600 kJ

Power1 kJ/kg = 1000 m2/s2

1 W = 1 J/s

1 W = 0.7376 ft·lbf/s

1 W = 9.4782 x 10-4 BTU/s

1 W = 1.341 x 10-3 hp

TemperatureT(K) = T(°C) + 273.15

T(R) = T(°F) + 459.67

T(°F) = 1.8T(°C) + 32

Temperature difference1.8°F/1°C

1.8°R/1K

1°F/1°R

1°C/1K

Time1 hr = 60 min

1 min = 60 s

Exploring further:


Section 10.2 – Nomenclature

Abbreviations used in this book.

Table 10.2.1: Nomenclature.
SymbolDefinition (SI Units)
APAverage property
CPHeat capacity (J/K)
CVHeat capacity (J/K)
EKKinetic energy (J)
EPPotential energy (J)
fconv,iFractional conversion of component i (-)
fex,iFractional excess of component i (-)
gAcceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
HEnthalpy (J)
hSpecific enthalpy (J/kg or J/mol)
haAbsolute humidity or moisture content (-)
mMass (kg)
MTotal mass (kg)
Mass flow rate (kg/s)
i,jComponent mass flow rate of stream i and component j (kg/s)
iMass flow rate of stream i (kg/s)
MWMolecular weight (kg/kmol)
nMoles (mol)
NTotal moles (mol)
Molar flow rate (mol/s)
iMolar flow rate of stream i (mol/s)
i,jComponent molar flow rate of stream i and component j (mol/s)
PPressure (Pa)
PabsAbsolute pressure (Pa)
PatmAtmospheric pressure (Pa)
PcCritical pressure (Pa)
PgGauge pressure (Pa)
PiPartial pressure (Pa)
PrReduced pressure (-)
PRiProperty of component i
PisatVapor or saturation pressure (Pa)
QHeat (J)
RUniversal gas constant (J/mol-K)
RHRelative humidity (-)
STPStandard temperature pressure (-)
TTemperature or dry bulb temperature (K)
tTime (s)
TcCritical temperature (K)
TDEWDew point temperature (K)
TrReduced temperature (-)
TsatSaturation temperature (K)
TWETWet bulb temperature (K)
UInternal energy (J)
uSpecific internal energy (J/mol)
VVolume (m3)
vSpecific volume (m3/mol)
vVelocity (m/s)
Volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
i,jVolumetric flow rate of stream i and component j (m3/s)
iVolumetric flow rate of stream i (m3/s)
VrReduced volume (-)
vSTPSpecific volume at STP conditions (m3/kmol)
WWork (J)
WFLFlow work (J)
WMBMoving boundary work (J)
WSShaft work (J)
xMole fraction or liquid mole fraction (-)
yMole fraction or vapor mole fraction (-)
zVertical height (m)
ZCompressibility factor (-)
ΔDifference between two states or properties
ΔhfHeat of formation (J/mol)
ΔhmHeat of fusion or melting (J/mol)
ΔhMIXHeat of mixing (J/mol)
Δhf°Standard heat of formation (J/mol)
Δhr°Standard heat of reaction (J/mol)
ΔhrHeat of reaction (J/mol)
ΔhsHeat of solution (J/mol)
ΔhvHeat of vaporization (J/mol)
μViscosity (Pa-s)
viStoichiometric coefficient (-)
ξExtent of reaction (mol or mol/s)
ρDensity (kg/m3)

Section 10.3 – Finding data and correlations

Data are important for engineering calculations including material and energy balances. These facts and data are adapted from various sources listed below. Use of the data is intended for educational purposes and should be verified from primary sources when completing engineering calculations. These data are not restricted by copyright laws. Therefore, these tables can easily be copied to a spreadsheet for simplifying calculations.

Data has been adapted from various sources including: Elementary principles of chemical processes by Richard M. Felder and Ronald W. Rousseau, John Wiley, 2000; E.W. Lemmon, M.O. McLinden and D.G. Friend, “Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P.J. Linstrom and W.G. Mallard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. Yaws’ Critical Property Data for Chemical Engineers and Chemists on knovel.com; Knovel Critical Tables (2nd Edition).

Exploring further:

A few place to find unit converters, the periodic table, and general engineering data.

  • Knovel unit converter (free): Most units and easily swap from one unit to another.
  • Periodic Table (free): This website offers an extensive look at all of the elements.
  • Knovel: Free access with student membership to AIChE (free for undergraduate students at aiche.org). Lots of digitized books allowing download to spreadsheets with citations included. DIPPR 801 Database is fully searchable and an excellent resources for vapor pressure and heat capacity as functions of temperature.
  • Access Engineering: Free at some universities. Fully searchable Perry’s Handbook and many other references.
  • NIST Chemistry WebBook: Free at this time. Good for steam tables (P, T, v, h, u, s, etc.), properties of many common fluids, phase change energies (e.g., heat of vaporization), vapor pressure/Antoine coefficients, heat capacity information, etc.
  • Engineering Toolbox: Web based data and many correlations/equations of interest.

Section 10.4 – Periodic table of the elements

Atomic masses have been limited to 4 significant figures for simplicity.

Table 10.4.1: Periodic table of the elements.
Element NameSymbolAtomic NumberAtomic Mass
HydrogenH11.008
HeliumHe24.003
LithiumLi36.941
BerylliumBe49.012
BoronB510.81
CarbonC612.01
NitrogenN714.01
OxygenO816.00
FluorineF919.00
NeonNe1020.18
SodiumNa1122.99
MagnesiumMg1224.31
AluminumAl1326.98
SiliconSi1428.09
PhosphorusP1530.97
SulfurS1632.07
ChlorineCl1735.45
ArgonAr1839.95
PotassiumK1939.10
CalciumCa2040.08
ScandiumSc2144.96
TitaniumTi2247.87
VanadiumV2350.94
ChromiumCr2452.00
ManganeseMn2554.94
IronFe2655.85
CobaltCo2758.93
NickelNi2858.69
CopperCu2963.55
ZincZn3065.41
GalliumGa3169.72
GermaniumGe3272.64
ArsenicAs3374.92
SeleniumSe3478.96
BromineBr3579.90
KryptonKr3683.80
RubidiumRb3785.47
StrontiumSr3887.62
YttriumY3988.91
ZirconiumZr4091.22
NiobiumNb4192.91
MolybdenumMo4295.94
TechnetiumTc4398
RutheniumRu44101.1
RhodiumRh45102.9
PalladiumPd46106.4
SilverAg47107.9
CadmiumCd48112.4
IndiumIn49114.8
TinSn50118.71
AntimonySb51121.8
TelluriumTe52127.6
IodineI53126.9
XenonXe54131.3
CesiumCs55132.9
BariumBa56137.3
LanthanumLa57138.9
CeriumCe58140.1
PraseodymiumPr59140.9
NeodymiumNd60144.2
PromethiumPm61145
SamariumSm62150.4
EuropiumEu63152.0
GadoliniumGd64157.3
TerbiumTb65158.9
DysprosiumDy66162.5
HolmiumHo67164.9
ErbiumEr68167.3
ThuliumTm69168.9
YtterbiumYb70173.0
LutetiumLu71175.0
HafniumHf72178.5
TantalumTa73180.9
TungstenW74183.8
RheniumRe75186.2
OsmiumOs76190.2
IridiumIr77192.2
PlatinumPt78195.1
GoldAu79197.0
MercuryHg80200.6
ThalliumTl81204.4
LeadPb82207.2
BismuthBi83209.0
PoloniumPo84209
AstatineAt85210
RadonRn86222
FranciumFr87223
RadiumRa88226
ActiniumAc89227
ThoriumTh90232.0
ProtactiniumPa91231.0
UraniumU92238.0
NeptuniumNp93237
PlutoniumPu94239
AmericiumAm95243
CuriumCm96247
BerkeliumBk97247
CaliforniumCf98251
EinsteiniumEs99252
FermiumFm100257
MendeleviumMd101258
NobeliumNo102259
LawrenciumLr103262
RutherfordiumRf104261
DubniumDb105262
SeaborgiumSg106266
BohriumBh107264
HassiumHs108277
MeitneriumMt109268
DarmstadtiumDs110281
RoentgentiumRg111272
CopernicumCn112285
UnuntriumUut113284
FleroviumFl114289
UnunpentiumUup115288
LivermoriumLv116292
UnunseptiumUus117293
UnunoctiumUuo118294

Section 10.5 – Physical properties

Physical properties are needed to perform many material or energy balance calculations. All properties are at 1 atm unless otherwise noted.

Table 1: Formula, molecular weight, and density (ρ)

Table 2: Melting temperature (Tm), heat of melting (Δhm), vaporization temperature (Tv), heat of vaporization (Δhv), critical temperature (Tc), critical pressure (Pc)

Table 3: Standard heat of formation (Δhfo), phase of formation, standard heat of combustion (Δhco), phase of combustion

The heats of combustion are for products of CO2(g) and H2O(l).

Table 10.5.1: Physical properties for many common components.
ComponentFormulaMWDensity
at 25ºC
g/cm3
AcetaldehydeCH3CHO44.050.774
Acetic AcidCH3COOH60.051.043
AcetoneC3H6O58.080.786
AcetyleneC2H226.040.377
AmmoniaNH317.03.602
Ammonium HydroxideNH4OH35.05
Ammonium NitrateNH4NO380.051.725
Ammonium Sulfate(NH4)2SO4132.141.769
AnilineC6H7N93.131.018
BenzaldehydeC6H5CHO106.121.04
BenzeneC6H678.110.873
Benzoic AcidC7H6O2122.121.266
Benzyl AlcoholC7H8O108.131.041
BromineBr2159.813.103
1,2-ButadieneC4H654.090.646
1,3-ButadieneC4H754.090.615
n-ButaneC4H1058.120.573
IsobutaneC4H1058.120.552
1-ButeneC4H856.110.588
Calcium CarbideCaC264.12.22
Calcium CarbonateCaCO3100.092.71
Calcium ChlorideCaCl2110.982.15
Calcium HydroxideCa(OH)274.12.24
Calcium OxideCaO56.083.34
Calcium PhosphateCa3(PO4)2310.183.14
Calcium SilicateCaSiO3116.172.915
Calcium SulfateCaSO4136.142.96
Calcium Sulfate-gypsumCaSO4▪2H2O172.182.32
CarbonC12.012.26
Carbon DioxideCO244.010.173
Carbon DisulfideCS276.141.26
Carbon MonoxideCO28.01
Carbon TetrachlorideCCl4153.821.58
ChlorineCl270.911.40
ChlorobenzeneC6H5Cl112.561.10
ChloroformCHCl3119.381.48
CopperCu63.558.96
CyclohexaneC6H1284.160.773
CyclopentaneC5H1070.130.750
n-DecaneC10H22142.290.728
Diethyl Ether(C2H5)2O74.120.708
EthaneC2H630.070.315
Ethyl AcetateC4H8O288.110.894
EthanolC2H5OH46.070.787
Ethyl BenzeneC8H10106.190.867
Ethyl BromideC2H5Br108.971.46
Ethyl ChlorideC2H5Cl64.510.890
3-Ethyl HexaneC8H18114.220.717
EthyleneC2H428.050.568
Ethylene GlycolC2H6O262.071.113
Ferric OxideFe2O3159.695.25
Ferrous OxideFeO71.846.00
Ferrous SulfideFeS87.914.70
FormaldehydeH2CO30.030.763
Formic AcidCH2O246.031.22
GlycerolC3H8O392.101.26
HeliumHe4
n-HeptaneC7H16100.20.682
n-HexaneC6H1486.180.656
HydrogenH22.02
Hydrogen BromideHBr80.911.73
Hydrogen ChlorideHCl36.460.80
Hydrogen CyanideHCN27.0320.73
Hydrogen FluorideHF20.010.941
Hydrogen SulfideH2S34.080.777
IodineI2253.84.93
IronFe55.857.87
LeadPb207.2111.3
Lead OxidePbO223.219.35
MagnesiumMg24.321.74
Magnesium ChlorideMgCl295.212.325
Magnesium HydroxideMg(OH)258.322.37
Magnesium OxideMgO40.303.60
MercuryHg200.5913.53
MethaneCH416.040.423
Methyl AcetateC3H6O274.080.927
MethanolCH3OH32.040.786
Methyl AmineCH5N31.060.703
Methyl ChlorideCH3Cl50.490.913
Methyl Ethyl KetoneC4H8O72.10.799
NaphthaleneC10H8128.161.145
NickelNi58.698.9
Nitric AcidHNO363.021.55
NitrobenzeneC6H5O2N123.111.20
NitrogenN228.02
Nitrogen DioxideNO246.011.44
Nitric OxideNO30.01
Nitrogen PentoxideN2O5108.022.00
Nitrogen TetraoxideN2O4921.45
Nitrous OxideN2O44.020.742
n-NonaneC9H20128.250.715
n-OctaneC8H18114.220.699
Oxalic AcidC2H2O490.041.9
OxygenO232
n-PentaneC5H1272.150.621
IsopentaneC5H1272.150.616
1-PenteneC5H1070.130.641
PhenolC6H5OH94.111.05
Phosphoric AcidH3PO4981.834
Phosphorus(white)P4123.91.82
PropaneC3H844.090.493
PropyleneC3H642.080.504
n-Propyl AlcoholC3H7OH60.090.802
Isopropyl AlcoholC3H7OH60.090.783
n-PropylBenzeneC9H12120.190.862
Silicon DioxideSiO260.092.20
Sodium BicarbonateNaHCO384.012.2
Sodium BisulfateNaHSO4120.072.43
Sodium CarbonateNa2CO3105.992.54
Sodium ChlorideNaCl58.452.17
Sodium CyanideNaCN49.011.60
Sodium HydroxideNaOH402.13
Sodium NitrateNaNO3852.257
Sodium SulfateNa2SO4142.052.698
Sodium SulfideNa2S78.051.856
Sodium ThiosulfateNa2S2O3158.111.667
Sulfur(rhombic)S8256.532.07
Sulfur(monoclinic)S8256.531.96
Sulfur DioxideSO264.071.37
Sulfur TrioxideSO380.071.92
Sulfuric AcidH2SO498.081.84
TolueneC7H892.130.866
WaterH2O18.0160.977
m-XyleneC8H10106.160.861
o-XyleneC8H10106.160.876
p-XyleneC8H10106.160.858
ZincZn65.387.14

Table 10.5.2: Physical properties for many common components 2.
ComponentTm
ºC
Δhm(Tm)
kJ/mol
Tv
ºC
Δhv(Tv)
kJ/mol
Tc
K
Pc
atm
Acetaldehyde-123.72.3120.423.9946654.77
Acetic Acid16.4511.72118.223.33594.857.1
Acetone-955.695630.2508.246.41
Acetylene3.76Sublimes
at -83.8 ºC
11.52308.360.58
Ammonia-765.653-3323.351405.5111.3
Ammonium Hydroxide-79
Ammonium Nitrate169.65.4Decomposes at 210 ºC
Ammonium Sulfate513Decomposes at 513 ºC
Aniline-6.0210.54184.244.221699.052.4
Benzaldehyde-269.3217942.1369545.89
Benzene5.539.83780.130.765562.648.6
Benzoic Acid122.218.062249.850.62575144.12
Benzyl Alcohol-15.48.79205.251.66720.1544.90
Bromine-7.2510.57358.629.963584.0102
1,2-Butadiene-136.56.9610.8524.2245243.03
1,3-Butadiene-109.17.98-4.4122.479425.042.7
n-Butane-138.34.661-.0522.305425.237.47
Isobutane-159.64.54-11.721.292408.136
1-Butene-185.33.848-6.322.443419.639.7
Calcium Carbide230032
Calcium Carbonate133936Decomposes at 8825 ºC-1206.9
Calcium Chloride771.8528.051935.452353620
Calcium Hydroxide-H2O at 580 ºC-H2O at 580 ºC
Calcium Oxide2570502850
Calcium Phosphate1670
Calcium Silicate153048.62
Calcium Sulfate145028
Calcium Sulfate-gypsum-1.5 H2O at 128 ºC
CarbonSublimes at 3825 ºC4827355.868102201
Carbon Dioxide-56.69.019-78Sublimes304.272.9
Carbon Disulfide-112.14.3946.2526.855278
Carbon Monoxide-205.10.837-191.55.9113334.5
Carbon Tetrachloride-22.92.6576.730556.445
Chlorine-1016.406-34.0620.441776.1
Chlorobenzene-459.556132.135.82632.444.6
Chloroform-63.78.86129.87553654
Copper108313.012562300.451236332
Cyclohexane6.542.67780.730.1553.740.4
Cyclopentane-93.40.60949.327.3511.844.55
n-Decane-29.928.715173.840.01761920.8
Diethyl Ether-116.37.1934.627.07846735.6
Ethane-183.32.859-88.614.72305.448.2
Ethyl Acetate-83.810.487732.231523.3
Ethanol-114.64.9378.539.4516.360.8
Ethyl Benzene-94.679.163136.235.98619.735.62
Ethyl Bromide-119.15.85838.227.52650461.5
Ethyl Chloride-136.44.45212.2724.7460.452
3-Ethyl Hexane118.534.2756726.4
Ethylene-169.23.35-103.713.54283.149.75
Ethylene Glycol-139.985197.252.49572080.93
Ferric Oxide1594138.1
Ferrous Oxide1376.8524.058
Ferrous Sulfide119331.5
Formaldehyde-927.05-19.123.1640865
Formic Acid8.412.68100.521.9958857.34
Glycerol18.218.329066.12885074.02
Helium-269.70.014-268.90.0835.22.26
n-Heptane-90.5914.0398.4331.69540.227
n-Hexane-95.3213.0368.7428.85507.929.9
Hydrogen-259.190.117-252.760.90433.312.96
Hydrogen Bromide-862.406-6718.06363.1584.40
Hydrogen Chloride-114.21.99-8516.36324.681.5
Hydrogen Cyanide-13.928.4062627.45456.6553.21
Hydrogen Fluoride-834.5819.527.53461.1563.95
Hydrogen Sulfide-85.52.38-60.318.67373.688.9
Iodine113.315.52184.241.88826115.02
Iron153513.812860340934010017.27
Lead327.44.771750179.95400850.04
Lead Oxide88625.514722072842.26231.31
Magnesium6508.4810901282241.042765.75
Magnesium Chloride71443.11418156.22754.32224.15
Magnesium HydroxideDecomposes at 350 ºCDecomposes at 350 ºC
Magnesium Oxide2831.8577.43600321.62595033.47
Mercury-38.872.295356.6959.217351587
Methane-182.50.94-161.58.179190.745.8
Methyl Acetate-98.97.48657.130.612506.746.88
Methanol-97.93.21564.735.27513.279.91
Methyl Amine-92.76.134-6.3326.11429.973.6
Methyl Chloride-97.96.431-2421.55416.165.8
Methyl Ethyl Ketone-87.18.4479.6431.22535.541
Naphthalene8019.02217.846.34784.439.97
Nickel145217.482900377.569864854.18
Nitric Acid-41.610.478331.7252068
Nitrobenzene5.7610.82210.744.0871943.42
Nitrogen-2100.72-195.85.577126.234.15
Nitrogen Dioxide-11.2514.652124.66431100
Nitric Oxide-1612.301-151.813.53179.263.95
Nitrogen Pentoxide3034.644761.77515.5163.49
Nitrogen Tetraoxide-11.2514.6521.138.12431100
Nitrous Oxide-91.16.54-88.816.38309.571.7
n-Nonane-53.815.47150.637.1559522.60
n-Octane-5720.74125.534.77568.824.5
Oxalic Acid189.5295.8572.5780469.82
Oxygen-218.750.444-182.976.82154.449.7
n-Pentane-129.68.39336.0725.77469.833.3
Isopentane-160.15.1627.724.7946133.36
1-Pentene-165.25.8829.9725.71464.835.13
Phenol40.9111.43181.447.31692.160.5
Phosphoric Acid42.3613.39406.85103050.04
Phosphorus(white)44.20.6628012.499482.20
Propane-187.693.52-42.0718.77369.942
Propylene-185.23-47.6918.42365.145.4
n-Propyl Alcohol-1275.37297.0441.38536.751.07
Isopropyl Alcohol-87.875.4182.2439.87508.847.02
n-Propyl Benzene-99.58.54159.238.24638.731.3
Silicon Dioxide171014.229505021.49777.82
Sodium BicarbonateDecomposes at 270 ºC
Sodium Bisulfate186
Sodium CarbonateDecomposes at 854 ºC
Sodium Chloride80828.161465130.053400350.36
Sodium Cyanide5628.791497148.12900234.49
Sodium Hydroxide322.856.61556.85164.842820246.73
Sodium Nitrate307153801321
Sodium Sulfate89023.6
Sodium Sulfide95019.3
Sulfur(rhombic)11310.04444.683.7
Sulfur(monoclinic)11914.17444.683.7
Sulfur Dioxide-73.157.402-10.0225.20430.777.8
Sulfur Trioxide16.848.644.7540.71491.481.03
Sulfuric Acid10.3110.31336.8550.292463.13
Toluene-94.996.619110.6233.47593.940.3
Water06.009510040.656647.4218.3
m-Xylene-47.8711.569139.136.461934.95
o-Xylene-25.1813.598144.4236.82631.536.83
p-Xylene13.2617.11138.3536.0761834.65
Zinc419.57.32907123.631702866

Table 10.5.3: Physical properties for many common components 3.
ComponentΔhof
kJ/mol
Phase of
formation
Δhoc
kJ/mol
Δhoc
kJ/mol
Phase of
combustion
Acetaldehyde-166.2gas-1104.5gas
Acetic Acid-486.2liquid-815.07liquid
Acetic Acid-438.15gas-919.73gas
Acetone-248.2liquid-1659.16liquid
Acetone-216.7gas-1821.4gas
Acetylene226.8gas-1257.07gas
Ammonia-67.2liquid
Ammonia-46.2gas-316.84gas
Ammonium Hydroxide-366.48aqueous
Ammonium Nitrate-365.14solid
Ammonium Nitrate-399.36aqueous
Ammonium Sulfate-1179.3solid
Ammonium Sulfate-1173.1aqueous
Aniline-3250.16liquid
Benzaldehyde-88.83liquid-3401.2liquid
Benzaldehyde-36.79gas
Benzene48.66liquid-3138.76liquid
Benzene82.93gas-3301.5gas
Benzoic Acid-3171.97solid
Benzyl Alcohol-3569.9liquid
Bromine0liquid
1,2-Butadiene-2461.87gas
1,3-Butadiene-2409.57gas
n-Butane-147liquid-2855.6liquid
n-Butane-129.79gas-2656.43gas
Isobutane-158.4liquid-2849liquid
Isobutane-134.5gas-2648.23gas
1-Butene1.17gas-2540.9gas
Calcium Carbide-59.8solid
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Cholride-794.96solid
Calcium Hydroxide-986.59solid
Calcium Oxide-635.6solid
Calcium Phosphate-4138solid
Calcium Silicate-1584solid
Calcium Sulfate-1432.7solid
Calcium Sulfate-1450.4aqueous
Calcium Sulfate-gypsum-2021solid
Carbon0solid-393.51solid
Carbon Dioxide-412.9liquid
Carbon Dioxide-393.5gas
Carbon Disulfide87.9liquid-1275.54liquid
Carbon Disulfide116.94gas1102.6gas
Carbon Monoxide-110.52gas-282.99gas
Carbon Tetrachloride-139.5liquid–267.88liquid
Carbon Tetrachloride-95.8gas-385gas
Chlorine0gas
Chlorobenzene2980.98liquid
Chloroform-131.8liquid-381.75liquid
Copper0solid
Cyclohexane-156.2liquid-3658.81liquid
Cyclohexane-123.1gas-3953gas
Cyclopentane-105.9liquid-3072.39liquid
Cyclopentane-77.2gas-3319.5gas
n-Decane-249.7liquid-6305.81liquid
n-Decane-6829.7gas
Diethyl Ether-272.8liquid-2504.34liquid
Ethane-83.79gas-1428.73gas
Ethyl Acetate-463.2liquid-2046.67liquid
Ethyl Acetate-444.49gas
Ethanol-277.63liquid-1238.13liquid
Ethanol-235.31gas-1409.25gas
Ethyl Benzene-12.46liquid-4351.3liquid
Ethyl Benzene29.79gas-4607.1gas
Ethyl Bromide-54.4gas-1285.03liquid
Ethyl Chloride-112.29gas-1279.32gas
3-Ethyl Hexane-250.5liquid-5407.1liquid
3-Ethyl Hexane-210.9gas-5509.8gas
Ethylene52.28gas-1323.2gas
Ethylene Glycol-451.5liquid-1072.54liquid
Ethylene Glycol-387.1gas
Ferric Oxide-822.2solid
Ferrous Oxide-272.05solid
Ferrous Sulfide-101.67solid
Formaldehyde-108.6gas-526.75gas
Formic Acid-409.2liquid-234.76liquid
Formic Acid-378.6gas
Glycerol-665.9liquid-1498.95liquid
Helium0gas
n-Heptane-224.4liquid-4469.75liquid
n-Heptane-187.8gas-4853.5gas
n-Hexane-198.8liquid-3857.92liquid
n-Hexane-167.2gas-4194.8gas
Hydrogen0gas-241.83gas
Hydrogen Bromide-36.23gas
Hydrogen Chloride-92.31gas
Hydrogen Cyanide135.14gas
Hydrogen Fluoride-272.55gas
Hydrogen Fluoride-316.9aqueous
Hydrogen Sulfide-20.5gas-518.17gas
Iodine0solid
Iron0solid
Lead0solid
Lead Oxide-219.41solid
Magnesium0solid
Magnesium Chloride641.62sloid
Magnesium Hydroxide-924.66solid
Magnesium Oxide-601.8solid
Mercury0solid
Methane-74.85gas-802.68gas
Methyl Acetate-409.4liquid-1463.54liquid
Methanol-238.6liquid-641.14liquid
Methanol-201.2gas-764gas
Methyl Amine-22.49gas-975.6gas
Methyl Chloride-81.92gas674.27gas
Methyl Ethyl Ketone-2271.58liquid
Naphthalene-5034.1solid
Nickel0solid
Nitric Acid-173.23liquid
Nitric Acid-205.57aqueous
Nitrobenzene-2989.22liquid
Nitrogen0gas
Nitrogen Dioxide33.1gas33.1gas
Nitric Oxide90.37gas90.29gas
Nitrogen Pentoxide
Nitrogen Tetraoxide9.08gas
Nitrous Oxide81.5gas82.05gas
n-Nonane-229liquid-5693.8liquid
n-Nonane-6171gas
n-Octane-249.9liquid-5081.06liquid
n-Octane-208.4gas-5512.2gas
Oxalic Acid-826.8solid-305.17gas
Oxygen0gas
n-Pentane-173liquid-3245.79liquid
n-Pentane-146.4gas-3536.1gas
Isopentane-179.3liquid-3240.09liquid
Isopentane-153.69gas-3529.2gas
1-Pentene-21.29gas-3129.74liquid
Phenol-158.1liquid-2978.8solid
Phenol-96.39gas
Phosphoric Acid-1281.1solid
Phosphoric Acid-1278.6aqueous,
1 H2O
Propane-119.8liquid-2204liquid
Propane-103.8gas-2043.18gas
Propylene19.71gas-1925.75gas
n-Propyl Alcohol-300.7liquid-1851.3liquid
n-Propyl Alcohol-255.2gas-2068.6gas
Isopropyl Alcohol-310.9liquid-1835.31liquid
n-Propyl Benzene-38.4liquid-5218.2liquid
n-Propyl Benzene7.82gas-5264.48gas
Silicon Dioxide-851solid
Sodium Bicarbonate-945.6solid
Sodium Bisulfate-1126.3solid
Sodium Carbonate-1130.9solid
Sodium Chloride-411solid
Sodium Cyanide-87.5solid
Sodium Hydroxide-426.6solid
Sodium Hydroxide-469.4aqueous
Sodium Nitrate-466.7solid
Sodium Sulfate-1384.5solid
Sodium Sulfide-366.1solid
Sodium Thiosulfate-1117.1solid
Sulfur(rhombic)0solid
Sulfur(monoclinic)0.3solid
Sulfur Dioxide-296.9gas
Sulfur Trioxide-395.18gas
Sulfuric Acid-811.32liquid
Sulfuric Acid-907.51aqueous
Toluene12liquid-3738.57liquid
Toluene50gas-3947.9gas
Water-285.84liquid
Water-241.83gas
m-Xylene-25.42liquid-4338.28liquid
m-Xylene17.24gas-4594.5gas
o-Xylene24.44liquid-4339.41liquid
o-Xylene18.99gas-4596.3gas
p-Xylene24.43liquid-4339.49liquid
p-Xylene17.95gas-4595.2gas
Zinc0solid

Section 10.6 – Properties of subcooled liquid water

The properties of subcooled liquid water include: specific volume, specific internal energy, specific enthalpy, and specific entropy. The reference state is uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C. The table is divided into sections by pressure. The tables are divided into different parts to ease use on a tablet or phone.

Table 1: P = 10 kPa to 1000 kPa

Table 2: P = 2500 kPa to 20000 kPa

Table 10.6.1: Subcooled liquid water table 1.
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 10 kPa Tsat = 45.806°C
Sat.0.0010103191.80191.810.64920
80
60
400.0010079167.53167.540.57240
200.001001883.91183.9210.29648
100.00100042.02042.0300.15109
50.00100021.01921.0290.076254
20.0010008.39128.40120.030608
P = 50 kPa Tsat = 81.317°C
Sat.0.001030340.49340.541.0912
800.0010291334.96335.011.0756
600.0010171251.15251.210.83128
400.0010079167.52167.570.57239
200.001001883.90983.9590.29647
100.00100042.01942.0690.15108
50.00100021.01921.0690.076253
20.0010008.39158.44150.030609
P = 100 kPa Tsat = 99.606 °C
Sat.0.0010432417.40417.501.3028
800.001029334.95335.051.0755
600.0010171251.15251.250.83125
400.0010078167.51167.620.57237
200.001001883.90684.0060.29646
100.00100042.01842.1180.15108
50.00100021.01921.1190.076252
20.0010008.39208.49200.03061
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 250 kPa Tsat = 127.41°C
Sat.0.0010672535.08535.341.6072
175
150
1250.0010649524.82525.091.5815
1000.0010434419.02419.281.3071
500.001012209.29209.550.70370
250.0010029104.81105.060.36716
50.00100021.01821.2680.07625
P = 500 kPa Tsat= 151.83°C
Sat.0.0010925639.54640.091.8604
175
1500.0010905631.65632.191.8418
1250.0010648524.73525.261.5813
1000.0010433418.94419.471.3069
500.0010119209.26209.760.70358
250.0010028104.79105.290.3671
50.00100021.01721.5170.076246
P = 1000 kPa Tsat= 179.88°C
Sat.0.0011272761.39762.522.1381
1750.0011206739.96741.082.0905
1500.001090631.41632.501.8412
1250.0010645524.54525.601.5808
1000.001043418.80419.841.3065
500.0010117209.18210.190.70335
250.0010026104.75105.750.36697
50.00100021.01522.0140.076237
Table 10.6.2: Subcooled liquid water table part 2.
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 2500 kPa Tsat= 223.95°C
Sat.0.0011974958.91961.912.5543
275
250
2000.0011556849.76852.652.3290
1500.0010891630.71633.431.8395
1000.0010422418.36420.971.3053
500.001011208.96211.490.70266
250.0010019104.63107.140.36658
P = 5000 kPa Tsat = 263.94°C
Sat.0.00128641148.21154.62.9210
275
2500.0012501079.51085.72.7910
2000.0011531847.91853.682.3251
1500.0010875629.55834.981.8368
1000.001041417.64422.851.3034
500.001010208.59213.640.7015
250.0010008104.44109.450.36592
P = 7500 kPa Tsat = 290.54°C
Sat.0.00136821282.71292.93.1662
2750.00131341200.41210.23.0174
2500.00124541076.41085.72.7851
2000.0011506846.10854.732.3212
1500.0010858628.40636.541.8341
1000.001040416.93424.731.3015
500.0010088208.22215.790.70035
250.001000104.25111.750.36526
P = 10000 kPa Tsat = 311.00°C
Sat.0.00145261393.51408.13.3606
350
3000.0013981329.41343.33.2488
2500.00124121073.41085.82.7792
2000.0011482844.31855.802.3174
1000.0010385416.23426.621.2996
500.0010078207.86217.940.6992
250.00099854104.06114.050.3646
P =15000 kPa Tsat= 342.16°C
Sat.0.0016571585.31610.23.6846
350
3000.00137831317.61338.33.2279
2500.0012331067.61086.12.7680
2000.0011435840.84857.992.3100
1000.0010361414.85430.391.2958
500.0010056207.15222.230.6969
250.00099635103.69118.630.36325
P = 20000 kPa Tsat = 365.75°C
Sat.0.0020401786.41827.24.0156
3500.00166491612.71646.03.7290
3000.00136111307.11334.43.2091
2500.00122541062.21086.72.7573
2000.001139837.49860.272.3027
1000.0010337413.50434.171.2920
500.0010035206.44226.510.69461
250.00099419103.32123.200.36187

Section 10.7 – Saturated water – temperature table

Reference state: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: Specific volume (v) and specific internal energy (u)

Table 2: Specific enthalpy (h) and specific entropy (s)

Table 10.7.1: Saturated water – temperature table 1.
VolumeInternal Energy
m3/kgkJ/kg
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporLiquidVaporΔu
T, °CPsat, kPavfvgufugufg
0.010.6120.001000205.990.0002374.92374.9
50.8730.001000147.0121.0192381.82360.8
101.2280.001000106.3042.0202388.62346.6
151.7060.00100177.87562.9802395.52332.5
202.3390.00100257.75783.9122402.32318.4
253.1700.00100343.337104.832409.12304.3
304.2470.00100432.878125.732415.92290.2
355.6290.00100625.205146.632422.72276.1
407.3850.00100819.515167.532429.42261.9
459.5950.00101015.252188.432436.12247.7
5012.3520.00101212.027209.332442.72233.4
5515.7620.0010159.5643230.242449.32219.1
6019.9460.0010177.6672251.162455.92204.7
6525.0420.0010206.1935272.092462.42190.3
7031.2010.0010235.0395293.032468.92175.9
7538.5950.0010264.1289313.992475.22161.2
8047.4140.0010293.4052334.962481.62146.6
8557.8670.0010322.8258355.952487.82131.9
9070.1820.0010362.3591376.972494.02117.0
9584.6080.0010401.9806398.002500.02102.0
100101.420.0010441.6718419.062506.02086.9
105120.900.0010471.4184440.152511.92071.8
110143.380.0010521.2093461.262517.72056.4
115169.180.0010561.0358482.412523.32040.9
120198.670.0010600.89121503.602528.92025.3
125232.240.0010650.77003524.832534.32009.5
130270.280.0010700.66800546.092539.51993.4
135313.230.0010750.58173567.412544.71977.3
140361.540.0010800.50845588.772549.61960.8
145415.680.0010850.44596610.192554.41944.2
150476.160.0010910.39245631.662559.11927.4
155543.500.0010960.34646653.192563.51910.3
160618.230.0011020.30678674.792567.81893.0
165700.930.0011080.27243696.462571.91875.4
170792.190.0011140.24259718.202575.71857.5
175892.600.0011210.21658740.022579.41839.4
1801,002.800.0011270.19384761.922582.81820.9
1851,123.500.0011340.17390783.912586.01802.1
1901,255.200.0011420.15636806.002589.01783.0
1951,398.800.0011490.14089828.182591.71763.5
2001,554.900.0011570.12721850.472594.21743.7
2051,724.300.0011650.11508872.872596.41723.5
2101,907.700.0011730.10429895.392598.31702.9
2152,105.800.0011810.094679918.042599.91681.9
2202,319.600.0011900.086092940.822601.21660.4
2252,549.700.0011990.078403963.742602.21638.5
2302,797.100.0012090.071503986.812602.91616.1
2353,062.500.0012190.0652981010.02603.21593.2
2403,346.900.0012300.0597051033.42603.11569.7
2453,651.200.0012400.0546541057.02602.71545.7
2503,976.200.0012520.0500831080.82601.81521.0
2554,322.900.0012640.0459381104.82600.51495.7
2604,692.300.0012760.0421731129.02598.71469.7
2655,085.300.0012890.0387461153.42596.51443.1
2705,503.000.0013030.0356211178.12593.71415.6
2755,946.400.0013180.0327661203.12590.31387.2
2806,416.600.0013330.0301531228.32586.41358.1
2856,914.700.0013490.0277561253.92581.81327.9
2907,441.800.0013660.0255551279.92576.51296.6
2957,999.100.0013850.0235291306.22570.51264.3
3008,587.900.0014040.0216601332.92563.61230.7
3059,209.400.0014250.0199331360.22555.91195.7
3109,865.100.0014480.0183351387.92547.11159.2
31510,5560.0014720.0168511416.32537.21120.9
32011,2840.0014990.0154711445.32526.01080.7
32512,0510.0015280.0141831475.12513.41038.3
33012,8580.0015610.0129791505.82499.2993.4
33513,7070.0015970.0118471537.62483.0945.4
34014,6010.0016380.0107811570.62464.4893.8
34515,5410.0016850.0097691605.32443.1837.8
35016,5290.001740.0088021642.12418.1776.0
35517,5700.0018080.0078681682.02388.4706.4
36018,6660.0018950.0069491726.32351.8625.5
36519,8210.0020170.0060121777.82303.8526.0
37021,0440.0022150.0049541844.12230.3386.2
373.94622,0640.0031060.0031062015.72015.70.0
Table 10.7.2: Saturated water – temperature table 2.
EnthalpyEntropy
kJ/kgkJ/kg•K
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporΔhLiquidVaporΔs
T, °CPsat, kPahfhghfgsfsgsfg
0.010.6120.0012500.92500.90.00009.15559.1555
50.87321.0202510.12489.10.07639.02488.9485
101.22842.0212519.22477.20.15118.89988.7487
151.70662.9812528.32465.30.22458.78038.5558
202.33983.9142537.42453.50.29658.66608.3695
253.170104.832546.52441.70.36728.55668.1894
304.247125.732555.52429.80.43688.45208.0153
355.629146.632564.52417.90.50518.35177.8466
407.385167.532573.52406.00.57248.25557.6831
459.595188.432582.42394.00.63868.16337.5247
5012.352209.342591.32382.00.70388.07487.3710
5515.762230.262600.12369.80.76807.98987.2218
6019.946251.182608.82357.60.83137.90817.0768
6525.042272.122617.52345.40.89377.82966.9360
7031.201293.072626.12333.00.95517.75406.7989
7538.595314.032634.62320.61.01587.68126.6654
8047.414335.012643.02308.01.07567.61116.5355
8557.867356.012651.32295.31.13467.54346.4088
9070.182377.042659.52282.51.19297.47816.2852
9584.608398.092667.62269.51.25047.41516.1647
100101.42419.172675.62256.41.30727.35416.0469
105120.90440.272683.42243.11.36337.29525.9319
110143.38461.422691.12229.71.41887.23815.8193
115169.18482.592698.62216.01.47377.18285.7091
120198.67503.812705.92202.11.52797.12915.6012
125232.24525.072713.12188.01.58167.07705.4954
130270.28546.382720.12173.71.63467.02645.3918
135313.23567.742726.92159.21.68726.97725.2900
140361.54589.162733.42144.21.73926.92935.1901
145415.68610.642739.82129.21.79076.88265.0919
150476.16632.182745.92113.71.84186.83714.9953
155543.50653.792751.82098.01.89246.79264.9002
160618.23675.472757.42081.91.94266.74914.8065
165700.93697.242762.82065.61.99236.70664.7143
170792.19719.082767.92048.82.04176.66504.6233
175892.60741.022772.72031.72.09066.62414.5335
1801,002.80763.052777.22014.22.13926.58404.4448
1851,123.50785.192781.41996.22.18756.54474.3572
1901,255.20807.432785.31977.92.23556.50594.2704
1951,398.80829.792788.81959.02.28326.46784.1846
2001,554.90852.272792.01939.72.33056.43024.0997
2051,724.30874.882794.81919.92.37776.39304.0153
2101,907.70897.632797.31899.72.42456.35633.9318
2152,105.80920.532799.31878.82.47126.32003.8488
2202,319.60943.582800.91857.32.51776.28403.7663
2252,549.70966.802802.11835.32.56406.24833.6843
2302,797.10990.192802.91812.72.61016.21283.6027
2353,062.501013.82803.21789.42.65616.17753.5214
2403,346.901037.62803.01765.42.70206.14233.4403
2453,651.201061.52802.21740.72.74786.10723.3594
2503,976.201085.82800.91715.12.79356.07213.2786
2554,322.901110.22799.11688.92.83926.03693.1977
2604,692.301135.02796.61661.62.88496.00163.1167
2655,085.301160.02793.51633.52.93075.96613.0354
2705,503.001185.32789.71604.42.97655.93042.9539
2755,946.401210.92785.21574.33.02245.89442.8720
2806,416.601236.92779.91543.03.06855.85792.7894
2856,914.701263.22773.71510.53.11475.82092.7062
2907,441.801290.02766.71476.73.16125.78342.6222
2957,999.101317.32758.71441.43.20805.74512.5371
3008,587.901345.02749.61404.63.25525.70592.4507
3059,209.401373.32739.41366.13.30285.66572.3629
3109,865.101402.22727.91325.73.35105.62442.2734
31510,5561431.82715.11283.33.39985.58162.1818
32011,2841462.22700.61238.43.44945.53722.0878
32512,0511493.52684.31190.83.50005.49081.9908
33012,8581525.92666.01140.13.55185.44221.8904
33513,7071559.52645.41085.93.60505.39061.7856
34014,6011594.52621.81027.33.66015.33561.6755
34515,5411631.52594.9963.43.71765.27621.5586
35016,5291670.92563.6892.73.77845.21101.4326
35517,5701713.72526.6812.93.84395.13801.2941
36018,6661761.72481.5719.83.91675.05361.1369
36519,8211817.82422.9605.14.00144.94970.9483
37021,0441890.72334.5443.84.11124.80120.6900
373.94622,0642084.32084.30.04.40704.40700.0000

Section 10.8 – Saturated water – pressure table

Reference States: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: Specific volume (v) and specific internal energy (u)

Table 2: Specific enthalpy (h) and specific entropy (s)

Table 10.8.1 Saturated water – pressure table 1.
VolumeInternal Energy
m3/kgkJ/kg
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporLiquidVaporΔu
P, kPaTsat, °Cvfvgufugufg
0.61170.010.001000205.990.00002374.92374.9
1.06.970.001000129.1829.2982384.52355.2
1.513.020.00100187.95954.6812392.82338.1
2.017.500.00100166.98773.4262398.92325.5
2.521.080.00100254.24088.4172403.82315.4
3.024.080.00100345.653100.9702407.92306.9
4.028.960.00100434.791121.382414.52293.1
5.032.870.00100528.185137.742419.82282.1
7.540.290.00100819.233168.742429.82261.1
1045.810.00101014.670191.802437.22245.4
1553.970.00101410.020225.932448.02222.1
2060.060.0010177.6480251.402456.02204.6
2564.960.0010206.2032271.932462.42190.5
3069.100.0010225.2284289.242467.72178.5
4075.860.0010263.9930317.582476.32158.7
5081.320.0010303.2400340.492483.22142.7
6085.930.0010332.7317359.842489.02129.2
7089.930.0010362.3648376.682493.92117.2
8093.490.0010392.0871391.632498.22106.6
9096.690.0010411.8694405.102502.12097.0
10099.610.0010431.6939417.402505.62088.2
101.32599.970.0010431.6734418.952506.02087.1
125105.970.0010481.3749444.222513.02068.8
150111.350.0010531.1593466.972519.22052.2
175116.040.0010571.0036486.822524.52037.7
200120.210.0010610.88568504.492529.12024.6
225123.970.0010640.79320520.472533.22012.7
250127.410.0010670.71866535.082536.82001.7
275130.580.0010700.65725548.562540.11991.5
300133.520.0010730.60576561.102543.21982.1
325136.270.0010760.56194572.842545.91973.1
350138.860.0010790.52418583.882548.51964.6
375141.300.0010810.49129594.322550.91956.6
400143.610.0010840.46238604.222553.11948.9
450147.900.0010880.41390622.652557.11934.5
500151.830.0010930.37481639.542560.71921.2
550155.460.0010970.34260655.162563.91908.7
600158.830.0011010.31558669.722566.81897.1
650161.980.0011040.29259683.362569.41886.0
700164.950.0011080.27277696.232571.81875.6
750167.750.0011110.25551708.402574.01865.6
800170.410.0011150.24034719.972576.01856.0
850172.940.0011180.22689731.002577.91846.9
900175.350.0011210.21489741.552579.61838.1
950177.660.0011240.20410751.672581.21829.5
1,000179.880.0011270.19436761.392582.71821.3
1,100184.060.0011330.17745779.782585.51805.7
1,200187.960.0011390.16326796.962587.81790.8
1,300191.600.0011440.15119813.112589.91776.8
1,400195.040.0011490.14078828.362591.81763.4
1,500198.290.0011540.13171842.832593.41750.6
1,600201.370.0011590.12374856.602594.81738.2
1,700204.310.0011630.11667869.762596.11726.3
1,800207.110.0011680.11037882.372597.21714.8
1,900209.800.0011720.10470894.482598.21703.7
2,000212.380.0011770.099585906.142599.11693.0
2,250218.410.0011870.088715933.572600.91667.3
2,500223.950.0011970.079949958.912602.11643.2
3,000233.850.0012170.0666641004.72603.21598.5
3,500242.560.0012350.0570581045.52602.91557.4
4,000250.350.0012530.0497761082.52601.71519.2
5,000263.940.0012860.0394461148.22597.01448.8
6,000275.580.0013190.0324481206.02589.91383.9
7,000285.830.0013520.0273781258.22581.01322.8
8,000295.010.0013850.0235261306.22570.51264.3
9,000303.340.0014180.0204901351.12558.51207.4
10,000311.000.0014530.0180301393.52545.21151.7
11,000318.080.0014890.0159901434.12530.51096.4
12,000324.680.0015260.0142641473.12514.31041.2
13,000330.850.0015670.0127801511.12496.5985.4
14,000336.670.0016100.0114851548.42477.1928.7
15,000342.160.0016570.0103381585.32455.6870.3
17,000352.290.0017690.00837091659.92405.2745.3
19,000361.470.0019270.00667731740.52339.1598.6
20,000365.750.0020400.00586521786.42295.0508.6
21,000369.830.0022060.00499611841.22233.7392.5
22,064373.950.0031060.0031062015.72015.70.0
Table 10.8.2 Saturated water – pressure table 2.
EnthalpyEntropy
kJ/kgkJ/kg•K
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporΔhLiquidVaporΔs
P, kPaTsat, °Chfhghfgsfsgsfg
0.61170.010.000611782500.92500.90.00009.15559.1555
1.06.9729.2992513.72484.40.105918.97498.8690
1.513.0254.6832524.72470.00.195568.82708.6314
2.017.5073.4282532.92459.50.260568.72268.4620
2.521.0888.4202539.42451.00.311828.64208.3302
3.024.08100.9802544.82443.80.354298.57648.2221
4.028.96121.392553.72432.30.422398.47348.0510
5.032.87137.752560.72423.00.476208.39387.9176
7.540.29168.752574.02405.30.576278.25017.6738
1045.81191.812583.92392.10.649208.14887.4996
1553.97225.942598.32372.40.754868.00717.2522
2060.06251.422608.92357.50.832027.90727.0752
2564.96271.962617.42345.40.893197.83026.9370
3069.10289.272624.52335.20.944077.76756.8234
4075.86317.622636.12318.51.02617.66906.6429
5081.32340.542645.22304.71.09127.59306.5018
6085.93359.912652.92293.01.14547.53116.3857
7089.93376.752659.42282.71.19217.47906.2869
8093.49391.712665.22273.51.23307.43396.2009
9096.69405.202670.32265.11.26967.39436.1247
10099.61417.502674.92257.41.30287.35886.0560
101.32599.97419.062675.62256.51.30697.35456.0476
125105.97444.352684.92240.61.37417.28405.9099
150111.35467.132693.12226.01.43377.22305.7893
175116.04487.002700.12213.11.48507.17155.6865
200120.21504.702706.22201.51.53027.12695.5967
225123.97520.712711.62190.91.57067.08765.5170
250127.41535.342716.52181.21.60727.05245.4452
275130.58548.862720.92172.01.64087.02075.3799
300133.52561.432724.92163.51.67176.99165.3199
325136.27573.192728.62155.41.70056.96495.2644
350138.86584.262732.02147.71.72746.94015.2127
375141.30594.732735.12140.41.75266.91715.1645
400143.61604.652738.12133.51.77656.89555.1190
450147.90623.142743.42120.31.82056.85605.0355
500151.83640.092748.12108.01.86046.82074.9603
550155.46655.762752.32096.51.89706.78864.8916
600158.83670.382756.12085.71.93086.75924.8284
650161.98684.082759.62075.51.96236.73224.7699
700164.95697.002762.82065.81.99186.70714.7153
750167.75709.242765.62056.42.01956.68364.6641
800170.41720.862768.32047.42.04576.66164.6159
850172.94731.952770.82038.92.07056.64094.5704
900175.35742.562773.02030.42.09406.62134.5273
950177.66752.742775.12022.42.11656.60274.4862
1,000179.88762.522777.12014.62.13816.58504.4469
1,100184.06781.032780.61999.62.17856.55204.3735
1,200187.96798.332783.71985.42.21596.52174.3058
1,300191.60814.602786.51971.92.25086.49364.2428
1,400195.04829.972788.81958.82.28356.46754.1840
1,500198.29844.562791.01946.42.31436.44304.1287
1,600201.37858.462792.81934.32.34356.41994.0764
1,700204.31871.742794.51922.82.37116.39814.0270
1,800207.11884.472795.91911.42.39756.37753.9800
1,900209.80896.712797.21900.52.42276.35783.9351
2,000212.38908.502798.31889.82.44686.33903.8922
2,250218.41936.242800.51864.32.50296.29543.7925
2,500223.95961.912801.91840.02.55436.25583.7015
3,000233.851008.32803.21794.92.64556.18563.5401
3,500242.561049.82802.61752.82.72546.12433.3989
4,000250.351087.52800.81713.32.79686.06963.2728
5,000263.941154.62794.21639.62.92105.97373.0527
6,000275.581213.92784.61570.73.02785.89012.8623
7,000285.831267.72772.61504.93.12245.81482.6924
8,000295.011317.32758.71441.43.20815.74502.5369
9,000303.341363.92742.91379.03.28705.67912.3921
10,000311.001408.12725.51317.43.36065.61602.2554
11,000318.081450.42706.31255.93.43035.55452.1242
12,000324.681491.52685.41193.93.49675.49391.9972
13,000330.851531.52662.71131.23.56085.43361.8728
14,000336.671571.02637.91066.93.62325.37271.7495
15,000342.161610.22610.71000.53.68465.31061.6260
17,000352.291690.02547.5857.53.80775.17871.3710
19,000361.471777.22466.0688.83.94015.02561.0855
20,000365.751827.22412.3585.14.01564.93140.9158
21,000369.831887.62338.6451.04.10644.80790.7015
22,064373.952084.32084.30.04.40704.40700.0000

Section 10.9 – Superheated vapor water/steam table

Reference states: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: P = 10 kPa to 800 kPa

Table 2: P = 1000 kPa to 3500 kPa

Table 3: P = 4000 kPa to 11000 kPa

Table 4: P = 12000 kPa to 20000 kPa

Table 10.9.1: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 1.
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 10 kPa Tsat = 45.806°C
Sat.14.6702437.22583.98.1488
5014.8672443.32592.08.1741
10017.1962515.52687.58.4489
15019.5132587.92783.08.6892
20021.8262661.32879.68.9049
25024.1362736.12977.49.1015
30026.4462812.33076.79.2827
40031.0632969.33279.99.6094
50035.6803132.93489.79.8998
60040.2963303.33706.310.1630
70044.9113480.83929.910.4060
80049.5273665.34160.610.6310
90054.1423856.94398.310.8430
100058.7584055.24642.811.0430
P = 50kPa Tsat = 81.317°C
Sat.3.24002483.22645.27.5930
50
1003.41872511.52682.47.6953
1503.88972585.72780.27.9413
2004.35622660.02877.88.1592
2504.82062735.12976.18.3568
3005.28402811.63075.88.5386
4006.20942968.93279.38.8659
5007.13383132.63489.39.1566
6008.05763303.13706.09.4201
7008.98123480.63929.79.6625
8009.90473665.24160.49.8882
90010.82803856.84398.210.1000
100011.75104055.14642.710.3000
P = 100 kPa Tsat = 99.606°C
Sat.1.69392505.62674.97.3588
50
1001.69592506.22675.87.3610
1501.93672582.92776.67.6148
2002.17242658.22875.57.8356
2502.40622733.92974.58.0346
3002.63882810.63074.58.2172
4003.10272968.33278.68.5452
5003.56553132.23488.78.8361
6004.02793302.83705.69.0998
7004.49003480.43929.49.3424
8004.95193665.04160.29.5681
9005.41373856.64398.09.7800
10005.87544055.04642.69.9800
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 200 kPa Tsat = 120.21°C
Sat.0.885682529.12706.27.1269
1500.959862577.12769.17.2810
2001.080502654.62870.77.5081
2501.198902731.42971.27.7100
3001.316202808.83072.17.8941
4001.549302967.13277.08.2236
5001.781403131.43487.78.5152
6002.013003302.23704.88.7792
7002.244303479.93928.89.0220
8002.475503664.74159.89.2479
9002.706603856.34397.69.4598
10002.937504054.84642.39.6599
P = 300 kPa Tsat = 133.52°C
Sat.0.605762543.22724.96.9916
1500.634012571.02761.27.0791
2000.716422651.02865.97.3131
2500.796442728.92967.97.5180
3000.875342807.03069.67.7037
4001.031502966.03275.58.0347
5001.186703130.63486.68.3271
6001.341403301.63704.08.5914
7001.495803479.53928.28.8344
8001.650003664.34159.39.0604
9001.804203856.04397.39.2724
10001.958204054.54642.09.4726
P = 400 kPa Tsat = 143.61°C
Sat.0.462382553.12738.16.8955
1500.470882564.42752.86.9306
2000.534332647.22860.97.1723
2500.595202726.42964.57.3804
3000.654892805.13067.17.5677
4000.772642964.93273.97.9002
5000.889363129.83485.58.1933
6001.005603301.03703.28.4580
7001.121503479.03927.68.7012
8001.237303663.94158.88.9273
9001.353003855.74396.99.1394
10001.468604054.34641.79.3396
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 500 kPa Tsat = 151.83°C
Sat.0.374812560.72748.16.8207
2000.425032643.32855.87.0610
2500.474432723.82961.07.2724
3000.522612803.23064.67.4614
3500.570152883.03168.17.6346
4000.617302963.73272.37.7955
5000.710943129.03484.58.0892
6000.804093300.43702.58.3543
7000.896963478.53927.08.5977
8000.989663663.64158.48.8240
9001.082303855.44396.69.0362
10001.174804054.04641.49.2364
P = 600 kPa Tsat = 158.83°C
Sat.0.315582566.82756.16.7592
2000.352122639.32850.66.9683
2500.393902721.22957.67.1832
3000.434422801.43062.07.3740
3500.474272881.63166.17.5481
4000.513742962.53270.87.7097
5000.592003128.23483.48.0041
6000.669763299.83701.78.2695
7000.747253478.13926.48.5131
8000.824573663.24157.98.7395
9000.901783855.14396.28.9518
10000.978934053.74641.19.1521
P = 800 kPa Tsat = 170.41°C
Sat.0.240342576.02768.36.6616
2000.260882631.02839.76.8176
2500.293202715.92950.47.0401
3000.324162797.53056.97.2345
3500.354422878.63162.27.4106
4000.384282960.23267.67.5734
5000.443323126.63481.37.8692
6000.501853298.73700.18.1354
7000.560113477.23925.38.3794
8000.618203662.44157.08.6061
9000.676193854.54395.58.8185
10000.734114053.24640.59.0189
Table 10.9.2: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 2.
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 1000 kPa Tsat = 179.88°C
Sat.0.194362582.72777.16.5850
2000.206022622.22828.36.6955
2500.232752710.42943.16.9265
3000.257992793.63051.67.1246
3500.282502875.73158.27.3029
4000.306612957.93264.57.4669
5000.354113125.03479.17.7641
6000.401113297.53698.68.0310
7000.447833476.23924.18.2755
8000.494383661.74156.18.5024
9000.540833853.94394.88.7150
10000.587214052.74639.98.9155
P = 1200 kPa Tsat = 187.96°C
Sat.0.163262587.82783.76.5217
2000.169342612.92816.16.5909
2500.192412704.72935.66.8313
3000.213862789.73046.37.0335
3500.234552872.73154.27.2139
4000.254822955.53261.37.3793
5000.294643123.43476.97.6779
6000.333943296.33697.07.9455
7000.372973475.33922.98.1904
8000.411843661.04155.28.4176
9000.450593853.34394.08.6303
10000.489284052.24639.48.8310
P = 1400 kPa Tsat = 195.04°C
Sat.0.140782591.82788.86.4675
2000.143032602.72803.06.4975
2500.163562698.92927.96.7488
3000.182322785.73040.96.9552
3500.200292869.73150.17.1379
4000.217822953.13258.17.3046
5000.252163121.83474.87.6047
6000.285973295.13695.47.8730
7000.319513474.43921.78.1183
8000.352873660.24154.38.3457
9000.386143852.74393.38.5587
10000.419334051.74638.88.7594
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 1600 kPa Tsat = 201.37°C
Sat.0.123742594.82792.86.4199
2250.132932645.12857.86.5537
2500.141902692.92919.96.6753
3000.158662781.63035.46.8863
3500.174592866.63146.07.0713
4000.190072950.73254.97.2394
5000.220293120.13472.67.5409
6000.249993293.93693.97.8100
7000.279403473.53920.58.0557
8000.308653659.54153.38.2834
9000.337803852.14392.68.4965
10000.366874051.24638.28.6974
P = 1800 kPa Tsat = 207.11°C
Sat.0.110372597.22795.96.3775
2250.116782637.02847.26.4824
2500.125022686.72911.76.6087
3000.140252777.43029.96.8246
3500.154602863.63141.87.0120
4000.168492948.33251.67.1814
5000.195513118.53470.47.4845
6000.222003292.73692.37.7543
7000.248213472.63919.48.0004
8000.274263658.84152.48.2284
9000.300203851.54391.98.4416
10000.326064050.74637.68.6426
P = 2000 kPa Tsat = 212.38°C
Sat.0.099592599.12798.36.3390
2250.103812628.52836.16.4160
2500.111502680.22903.26.5475
3000.125512773.23024.26.7684
3500.138602860.53137.76.9583
4000.151212945.93248.37.1292
5000.175683116.93468.27.4337
6000.199613291.53690.77.7043
7000.223263471.63918.27.9509
8000.246743658.04151.58.1790
9000.270123850.94391.18.3925
10000.293424050.24637.08.5936
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 2500 kPa Tsat = 223.95°C
Sat.0.079952602.12801.96.2558
2250.080262604.82805.56.2629
2500.087052663.32880.96.4107
3000.098942762.23009.66.6459
3500.109792852.53127.06.8424
4000.120122939.83240.17.0170
5000.139993112.83462.77.3254
6000.159313288.53686.87.5979
7000.178353469.33915.27.8455
8000.197213656.24149.28.0743
9000.215973849.44389.38.2882
10000.234664048.94635.68.4896
P = 3000 kPa Tsat= 233.85°C
Sat.0.066662603.22803.26.1856
225
2500.070632644.72856.56.2893
3000.081182750.82994.36.5412
3500.090562844.43116.16.7449
4000.099382933.53231.76.9234
5000.116203108.63457.27.2359
6000.132453285.53682.87.5103
7000.148413467.03912.27.7590
8000.164203654.34146.97.9885
9000.179883847.94387.58.2028
10000.195494047.74634.18.4045
P = 3500 kPa Tsat = 242.56°C
Sat.0.057062602.92802.66.1243
225
2500.058762624.02829.76.1764
3000.068452738.82978.46.4484
3500.076802836.03104.86.6601
4000.084562927.23223.26.8427
5000.099203104.53451.67.1593
6000.113253282.53678.97.4356
7000.127023464.73909.37.6854
8000.140613652.54144.67.9156
9000.154103846.44385.78.1303
10000.167514046.44632.78.3324
Table 10.9.3: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 3.
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 4000 kPa Tsat = 250.35°C
Sat.0.049782601.72800.86.0696
2750.054612668.92887.36.2312
3000.058872726.22961.76.3639
3500.066472827.43093.36.5843
4000.073432920.73214.56.7714
4500.080043011.03331.26.9386
5000.086443100.33446.07.0922
6000.098863279.43674.97.3705
7000.110983462.43906.37.6214
8000.122923650.64142.37.8523
9000.134763844.84383.98.0674
10000.146524045.14631.28.2697
P = 4500 kPa Tsat = 257.44°C
Sat.0.044062599.72797.96.0197
2750.047332651.32864.36.1429
3000.051382713.02944.26.2854
3500.058422818.63081.56.5153
4000.064772914.23205.66.7070
4500.070763005.83324.26.8770
5000.076523096.03440.47.0323
6000.087663276.43670.97.3127
7000.098503460.03903.37.5646
8000.109163648.84140.07.7962
9000.119723843.34382.18.0118
10000.130204043.94629.88.2144
P = 5000 kPa Tsat= 263.94°C
Sat.0.039452597.02794.25.9737
2750.041442632.32839.56.0571
3000.045352699.02925.76.2110
3500.051972809.53069.36.4516
4000.057842907.53196.76.6483
4500.063323000.63317.26.8210
5000.068583091.73434.76.9781
6000.078703273.33666.87.2605
7000.088523457.73900.37.5136
8000.098163646.94137.77.7458
9000.107693841.84380.27.9618
10000.117154042.64628.38.1648
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 6000 kPa Tsat = 227.58°C
Sat.0.0324482589.92784.65.8901
3000.0361892668.42885.56.0703
3500.0422512790.43043.96.3357
4000.0474192893.73178.26.5432
4500.0521662989.93302.96.7219
5000.0566713083.13423.16.8826
5500.0610213175.23541.37.0307
6000.0652653267.23658.77.1693
7000.0735453453.03894.37.4246
8000.0816483643.24133.17.6582
9000.0896413838.84376.67.8751
10000.0975604040.14625.48.0786
P = 7000 kPa Tsat = 285.83°C
Sat.0.0273782581.02772.65.8148
3000.0294922633.52839.95.9337
3500.0352622770.13016.96.2304
4000.0399582879.53159.26.4502
4500.0441872979.03288.36.6353
5000.0481573074.33411.46.8000
5500.0519663167.93531.66.9506
6000.0556653260.93650.67.0910
7000.0628503448.33888.27.3486
8000.0698553639.54128.47.5836
9000.0767503835.74373.07.8014
10000.0835714037.54622.58.0055
P = 8000 kPa Tsat = 295.01°C
Sat.0.0235262570.52758.75.7450
3000.0242792592.32786.55.7937
3500.0299752748.32988.16.1321
4000.0343442864.63139.46.3658
4500.0381942967.83273.36.5579
5000.0417673065.43399.56.7266
5500.0451723160.53521.86.8799
6000.0484633254.73642.47.0221
7000.0548283443.63882.27.2821
8000.0610113635.74123.87.5184
9000.0670823832.64369.37.7371
10000.0730794035.04619.67.9419
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 9000 kPa Tsat= 303.34°C
Sat.0.0204902558.52742.95.6791
3250.0232842647.62857.15.8738
3500.0258162724.92957.36.0380
4000.0299602849.23118.86.2876
4500.0335242956.33258.06.4872
5000.0367933056.33387.46.6603
5500.0398853153.03512.06.8164
6000.0428613248.43634.16.9605
7000.0485893438.83876.17.2229
8000.0541323632.04119.17.4606
9000.0595623829.64365.77.6802
10000.0649184032.44616.77.8855
P = 10000 kPa Tsat = 311.00°C
Sat.0.0180302545.22725.55.6160
3250.0198772611.62810.35.7596
3500.0224402699.62924.05.9459
4000.0264362833.13097.46.2141
4500.0297822944.53242.36.4219
5000.0328113047.03375.16.5995
5500.0356543145.43502.06.7585
6000.0383783242.03625.86.9045
7000.0435973434.03870.07.1693
8000.0486293628.24114.57.4085
9000.0535473826.54362.07.6290
10000.0583904029.94613.87.8349
P = 11000 kPa Tsat= 318.08°C
Sat.0.0159902530.52706.35.5545
3250.0169532569.22755.75.6375
3500.0196252672.02887.95.8542
4000.0235372816.33075.26.1440
4500.0267132932.43226.36.3607
5000.0295493037.63362.76.5431
5500.0321913137.83491.96.7050
6000.0347093235.63617.46.8531
7000.0395133429.23863.97.1204
8000.0441263624.44109.87.3610
9000.0486253823.54358.37.5824
10000.0530494027.34610.97.7889
Table 10.9.4: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 4.
Tvuhs
°Cm3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 12000 kPa Tsat = 224.68°C
Sat.0.0142642514.32685.45.4939
3500.0172212641.42848.15.7609
4000.0211062798.73052.06.0764
4500.0241492920.03209.86.3028
5000.0268283028.13350.06.4903
5500.0293043130.03481.76.6553
6000.0316513229.13608.96.8054
6500.0339123326.93733.86.9446
7000.0361093424.43857.77.0753
8000.0403753620.64105.17.3173
9000.0445243820.44354.77.5396
10000.0485994024.84608.07.7467
P = 13000 kPa Tsat= 330.85°C
Sat.0.0127802496.52662.75.4336
3500.0151192607.22803.75.6638
4000.0190332780.33027.76.0106
4500.0219742907.33193.06.2476
5000.0245233018.33337.16.4405
5500.0268593122.23471.36.6087
6000.0290633222.53600.46.7609
6500.0311783321.33726.66.9016
7000.0332293419.63851.57.0333
8000.0372003616.94100.47.2768
9000.0410543817.34351.07.5000
10000.0448334022.24605.07.7078
P = 14000 kPa Tsat = 336.67°C
Sat.0.0114852477.12637.95.3727
3500.0132322567.82753.15.5598
4000.0172402761.03002.35.9459
4500.0201042894.23175.76.1946
5000.0225443008.43324.16.3932
5500.0247633114.23460.96.5648
6000.0268453216.03591.86.7191
6500.0288353315.73719.46.8612
7000.0307613414.73845.36.9941
8000.0344793613.14095.87.2391
9000.0380803814.24347.47.4632
10000.0416054019.74602.17.6716
P = 15000 kPa Tsat = 342.16°C
Sat.0.0103382455.62610.75.3106
3750.0139022650.42858.95.7050
4000.0156712740.62975.75.8819
4500.0184772880.73157.96.1434
5000.0208272998.43310.86.3480
5500.0229453106.23450.46.5230
6000.0249213209.33583.16.6796
6500.0268043310.13712.16.8233
7000.0286213409.83839.16.9572
8000.0321213609.24091.17.2037
9000.0355033811.24343.77.4288
10000.0388084017.14599.27.6378
P =17000 kPa Tsat= 352.29°C
Sat.0.00837092405.22547.55.1787
3750.0111752586.02776.05.5385
4000.0130382696.22917.95.7536
4500.0157842852.73121.06.0451
5000.0179942977.73283.66.2628
5500.0199483089.93429.06.4451
6000.0217523195.93565.76.6063
6500.0234593298.73697.56.7531
7000.0250973400.03826.66.8894
8000.0282373601.64081.67.1388
9000.0312583805.04336.47.3658
10000.0342024012.04593.47.5760
P = 20000 kPa Tsat = 365.75°C
Sat.0.0058652295.02412.34.9314
3750.0076762449.12602.65.2275
4000.0099502617.92816.95.5525
4500.0127212807.23061.75.9043
5000.0147932945.33241.26.1446
5500.0165713064.73396.16.3389
6000.0181853175.33539.06.5075
6500.0196953281.43675.36.6593
7000.0211333385.13807.86.7990
8000.0238693590.14067.57.0531
9000.0264833795.74325.47.2829
10000.0290204004.34584.77.4950

Section 10.10 – Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure, or saturation pressure, was defined in another section. The Antoine equation is a common equation for vapor pressure as a function of temperature. Three constants are needed to calculate vapor pressures from the Antoine equations, which have been experimentally measured for many components. The Antoine equation is:

log10 Psat = A − BT+C

where A, B, C are tabulated below for many components. Psat has units of mmHg, and T has units of oC.

Table 10.10.1: Vapor Pressure.
ComponentABCLow THigh T
Acetaldehyde7.313771175.27244.272-105.0192.9
Acetic Acid7.276421326.65183.913-42.8318.8
Acetic Acid7.188071516.7225036
Acetic Anhydride7.149481444.718199.81762.8139.4
Acetone7.314141315.67240.479-94.7235.1
Acetylene7.31465790.209262.859-80.835.2
Acrylic Acid5.65204648.629154.6832070
Ammonia7.554661013.78248.825-77.5132.5
Ammonium Nitrate7.476871118.72245.150-70.080.0
Aniline7.32011668.15193.636-6.02425.9
Benzaldehyde7.254111734.80217.931-26.0421.9
Benzene6.814041090.43197.146-40.0288.9
Benzoic Acid7.418441824.74152.886122.4477.9
Benzyl Alcohol7.923382060.53203.928-15.3403.85
Bromine7.279061321.90241.801-7.3311.0
1,2-Butadiene7.064821097.26251.400-132.0178.9
1,3-Butadiene7.02238998.751245.563-108.9152.2
n-Butane7.009611022.48248.145-138.3152.0
Isobutane6.93388953.920247.077-159.6135.0
i-Butane6.78866899.617541.942-85.1-11.6
1-Butanol7.363661305.198173.42789.2125.7
2-Butanol7.201311157168.27972.4107.1
1-Butene7.034201013.60250.929-185.4146.4
Butyric Acid8.710192433.014255.18920150
Calcium Chloride9.2200013570.00273.150836.91007.85
Carbon9.4120527489.0281.9692985.954125.95
Carbon Dioxide7.58828861.820271.883-56.5731.04
Carbon Disulfide7.217901303.79254.394-111.6278.2
Carbon Monoxide6.72527295.228268.243-205.0-140.2
Carbon Tetrachloride7.011441278.54232.888-22.8283.2
Chlorine7.06306906.703250.828-101.0144.0
Chlorobenzene7.183421574.53234.229-45.2359.2
Chloroform7.11481232.79230.213-63.5263.3
Cyclohexane6.849411206.001218.815-85.6280.7
Cyclohexanol6.2553912.866109.12693.7160.7
Cyclopentane7.042671202.53239.690-93.8238.6
n-Decane7.217451693.93216.459-29.7354.3
1-Decene6.954331497.527197.05686.8171.6
1,1-Dichloroethane6.97721174.022229.06-38.817.6
1,1-Dichloroethane7.02531271.254222.927-30.899.4
Dichloromethane7.409161325.938252.616-4040
Diethyl Ether7.046311112.55232.657-116.3193.6
Diethyl Ketone7.025291310.281214.19256.5111.3
Diethylene Glycol7.636661939.359162.714130243
Dimethyl Ether6.97603889.264241.957-78.2-24.9
Dimethylamine7.08212960.242221.667-71.86.9
N,N-Dimethylformamide6.927961400.869196.4343090
1,4-Dioxane7.431551554.679240.33720105
Ethane6.95335699.106260.264-182.832.27
Ethanol8.134841662.48238.131-141.1243.1
Ethanolamine7.45681577.67173.36865.4170.9
Ethyl Acetate7.259631338.46228.608-83.6250.2
Ethyl Chloride7.130471097.60246.009-136.4187.2
Ethyl Benzene7.156101559.55228.582-94.95344.0
Ethylene6.96636649.806262.730-169.19.21
Ethylene Glycol9.699413147.10264.246-13.0371.9
Ethylene Oxide8.690162005.779334.7650.331.8
1,2-Ethylenediamine7.168711336.235194.36626.5117.4
Formaldehyde7.464321078.39254.377-92134.9
Formic Acid6.974591165.08184.037-56.0314.9
Glycerol7.016211448.8162.492896.0576.9
Helium5.2712013.5171274.585-271.4-268.0
n-Heptane7.046051341.89223.733-90.9267.1
i-Heptane6.876891238.122219.78318.590.9
1-Heptene6.913811265.12220.05121.694.5
n-Hexane6.9859501216.92227.451-95.3234.3
i-Hexane6.868391151.401228.47712.861.1
1-Hexene6.86881154.646226.0446615.964.3
Hydrogen6.1485880.9480277.532-259.2-240.0
Hydrogen Bromide6.93857704.443240.302-88.090.0
Hydrogen Chloride7.25303764.837259.931-114.251.5
Hydrogen Cyanide8.084221655.87292.228-13.3183.5
Hydrogen Fluoride8.123921680.65301.024-83.4188.0
Hydrogen Sulfide7.11958802.227249.610-85.5100.4
Iodine7.107361556.97183.969-31.2546.0
Iron8.3793016213.588.52021435.02860.2
Lead7.463459131.84243.703434.91749.0
Lead Oxide9.2418310820.3227.032943.01474.0
Magnesium7.706126302.91216.220243.91090.0
Magnesium Chloride7.138016698.78161.047778.01412.0
Magnesium Oxide6.9227613862.2-170.4642831.95676.9
Mercury7.894583147.61271.104-38.81461.9
Methane6.84566435.621271.361-182.5-82.6
Methanol8.019261582.91239.096-97.9239.4
Methyl Acetate7.280361276.29233.155-98.0233.7
Methyl Bromide7.090841046.066244.914-703.6
Methyl Chloride6.99771870.170235.586-140.2143.1
Methyl Ethyl Ketone7.201031325.15227.039-85.0262.4
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone6.672721168.408191.94421.7116.2
Methyl Methacrylate8.409192050.467274.36939.289.2
Methylamine7.33691025.40233.286-93.5156.9
Methylcyclohexane6.828271273.673221.72325.6101.8
Naphthalene6.891161551.48168.8793.2475.3
Nickel8.7637217953.7138.8541480.03200.0
Nitric Acid7.564531431.75222.686-41.6103.0
Nitrobenzene7.538142018.3722.5755.76445.9
Nitromethane7.281661446.9377227.655.7136.4
Nitrogen6.72531285.573270.087-210.0-147.1
Nitrogen Dioxide9.743252289.63312.647-11.2158.2
Nitric Oxide7.70299473.030249.866-163.7-93.0
Nitrogen Pentoxide11.93252617.65256.190-36.833.0
Nitrogen Tetraoxide4.0940797.828759.4731-11.347.5
Nitrous Oxide6.81488550.604228.438-90.936.4
n-Nonane7.188401607.74222.414-53.5322.5
1-Nonene6.957771437.862205.81466.6147.9
n-Octane7.144621498.96225.874-56.8295.7
i-Octane6.888141319.529211.62541.7118.5
1-Octane6.936371355.779213.02244.9122.2
Oxalic Acid8.207352370.64149.212189.5530.9
Oxygen6.83706339.209268.702-218.8-118.6
n-Pentane7.008771134.15238.678-129.7196.5
Isopentane7.030151140.15247.012-159.9187.3
i-Pentane6.73457992.019229.56416.328.6
1-Pentanol7.182461287.625161.3374.7156
1-Pentene7.027411132.42243.136-163.2191.6
Phenol7.367241629.51181.369-9.7421.1
Phosphorus(red)8.064202397.83229.599182.0720.9
Phosphorus7.063152016.60201.670131.0317.0
Phosphorus Pentoxide10.74536470.48217.748203.0700.0
Propane7.01887889.864257.084-187.796.7
Propylene7.01612860.992255.895-184.291.6
n-Propyl Alcohol7.773741518.16213.076-73.2263.6
Isopropyl Alcohol7.830561483.30217.413-87.9235.2
1-Propanol7.744161437.686198.46360.2104.6
2-Propanol7.740211359.517197.52752.389.3
Propionic Acid7.714231733.418217.72472.4128.3
Propylene Oxide7.014431086.369228.594-24.234.8
Pyridine7.041151373.799214.97967.3152.9
Sodium Chloride7.963188432.24194.065800.81465.1
Sodium Cyanide7.386287836.86243.409563.71496.0
Sodium Hydroxide7.465117606.44280.160500.01600.0
Sodium Sulfate7.7447415657.2273.156900.0950.0
Sulfur Dioxide7.333111013.46237.647-75.5157.6
Sulfur Trioxide6.85638754.818145.11416.8217.7
Sulfuric Acid8.285382976.84213.95125.0336.9
Styrene7.066231507.434214.98529.9144.8
Toluene7.136201457.29231.827-95.0318.6
1,1,1-Trichloroethane8.643442136.621302.769-5.416.9
1,1,2-Trichloroethane6.951851314.41209.19750113.7
Trichloroethylene6.518271018.603192.73117.886.5
Vinyl Acetate7.21011296.13226.65521.872
Water8.055731723.64233.0760374.0
m-Xylene7.181151573.02226.671-47.9343.9
o-Xylene7.149141566.59222.596-25.2357.22
p-Xylene7.154711553.95225.23013.3343.1
Zinc8.447446819.18318.012419.62896.9

Section 10.11 – Heat capacity

Heat capacity is defined in another section. Two different polynomial forms and corresponding coefficients for many components are given here. These tables provide data for heat capacity and enthalpy calculations.

The first polynomial equation requires up to four constants and applies for many solids, liquids, and gases.

CP = a + b · T + c · T2 + d · T3

where CP is in either kJ/(mol∙°C) or kJ/(mol∙K), and T is in either °C or K.

Table 10.11.1: Heat capacity data for common components.
ComponentStateabcdTemp UnitRange (Low T)Range (High T)
Acetoneliquid1.230E-011.860E-04—–—–ºC-90
Acetonegas7.196E-022.010E-04-1.278E-073.476E-11ºC01200
Acetylenegas4.243E-026.053E-05-5.033E-081.820E-11ºC01200
Airgas2.894E-024.147E-063.191E-09-1.965E-12ºC01500
Ammoniagas3.515E-022.954E-054.421E-09-6.686E-12ºC01200
Ammonium Sulfatesolid2.159E-01—–—–—–K275328
Benzeneliquid1.265E-012.340E-04—–—–ºC667
Benzenegas7.406E-023.295E-04-2.520E-077.757E-11ºC01200
Isobutanegas8.946E-023.013E-04-1.891E-074.987E-11ºC01200
n-Butanegas9.230E-022.788E-04-1.547E-073.498E-11ºC01200
Isobutenegas8.288E-022.564E-04-1.727E-075.050E-11ºC01200
Calcium Hydroxidesolid8.950E-02—–—–—–K276373
Carbon Dioxidegas3.611E-024.233E-05-2.887E-087.464E-12ºC01500
Carbon Monoxidegas2.895E-024.110E-063.548E-09-2.220E-12ºC01501
Carbon Tetrachlorideliquid9.339E-021.298E-04—–—–K273343
Chlorinegas3.360E-021.367E-05-1.607E-086.473E-12ºC01200
Coppersolid2.276E-026.117E-06—–—–K2731357
Cumene (Isopropyl Benzene)gas1.392E-015.376E-04-3.979E-071.205E-10ºC01200
Cyclohexanegas9.414E-024.962E-04-1.390E-078.063E-11ºC01200
Cyclopentanegas7.339E-023.928E-04-2.554E-076.866E-11ºC01200
Ethanegas4.937E-021.392E-04-5.816E-087.280E-12ºC01200
Ethanolliquid9.839E-02—–—–—–ºC2575
Ethanolgas6.134E-021.572E-04-8.749E-081.983E-11ºC01200
Ethylenegas4.075E-021.147E-04-6.891E-081.766E-11ºC01200
Formaldehydegas3.428E-024.268E-05—–-8.694E-12ºC01200
Heliumgas2.080E-02—–—–—–ºC01200
n-Hexaneliquid2.163E-01—–—–—–ºC20100
n-Hexanegas1.374E-014.085E-04-2.392E-075.766E-11ºC01200
Hydrogengas2.884E-027.650E-083.288E-09-8.698E-13ºC01500
Hydrogen Bromidegas2.910E-02-2.270E-079.887E-09-4.858E-12ºC01200
Hydrogen Chloridegas2.913E-02-1.341E-069.715E-09-4.335E-12ºC01200
Hydrogen Cyanidegas3.530E-022.908E-05-1.092E-08—–ºC01200
Hydrogen Sulfidegas3.351E-021.547E-053.012E-09-3.292E-12ºC01500
Magnesium Chloridesolid7.240E-021.580E-05—–—–K273991
Methanegas3.431E-025.469E-053.661E-09-1.100E-11ºC01200
Methanolliquid7.586E-021.683E-04—–—–ºC065
Methanolgas4.293E-028.301E-05-1.870E-08-8.030E-12ºC0700
Methyl Cyclohexanegas1.213E-015.653E-04-3.772E-071.008E-10ºC01200
Methyl Cyclopentanegas9.883E-024.586E-04-3.044E-078.381E-11ºC01200
Nitric Oxideliquid1.100E-01—–—–—–ºC25
Nitric Oxidegas2.950E-028.188E-06-2.925E-093.652E-13ºC03500
Nitrogengas2.900E-022.199E-065.723E-09-2.871E-12ºC01500
Nitrogen Dioxidegas3.607E-023.970E-05-2.880E-087.870E-12ºC01200
Nitrogen Tetraoxidegas7.570E-021.250E-04-1.130E-07—–ºC0300
Nitrous Oxidegas3.766E-024.151E-05-2.694E-081.057E-11ºC01200
Oxygengas2.910E-021.158E-05-6.076E-091.311E-12ºC01500
n-Pentaneliquid1.554E-014.368E-04—–—–ºC036
n-Pentanegas1.148E-013.409E-04-1.899E-074.226E-11ºC01200
Propanegas6.803E-022.259E-04-1.311E-073.171E-11ºC01200
Propylenegas5.958E-021.771E-04-1.017E-072.460E-11ºC01200
Sodium Carbonatesolid1.210E-01—–—–—–K288371
Sodium Carbonate – Decahydratesolid5.356E-01—–—–—–K298
Sulfur (rhombic)solid1.520E-022.680E-05—–—–K373368
Sulfur (monoclinic)solid1.830E-021.840E-05—–—–K368392
Sulfuric Acidliquid1.391E-011.559E-04—–—–ºC1045
Sulfur Dioxidegas3.891E-023.904E-05-3.104E-088.606E-12ºC01500
Sulfur Trioxidegas4.850E-029.188E-05-8.540E-083.240E-11ºC01000
Tolueneliquid1.488E-013.240E-04—–—–ºC0110
Toluenegas9.418E-023.800E-04-2.786E-078.033E-11ºC01200
Waterliquid7.540E-02—–—–—–ºC0100
Watergas3.346E-026.880E-067.604E-09-3.593E-12ºC01500

A second polynomial equation requires three constants, always uses K as the temperature unit, and applies only for components in the solid phase.

CP = a + b · T + cT2

where CP has units of kJ/mol-K and T has units of or K.

Table 10.11.2: Heat capacity data for some components.
ComponentabcRange (Low T)Range (High T)
Calcium Carbide6.862E-021.190E-05-8.660E+02298720
Calcium Carbonate8.234E-024.975E-05-1.287E+032731033
Calcium Oxide4.184E-022.030E-05-4.520E+022731173
Carbon1.118E-021.095E-05-4.891E+022731373
Ferric Oxide1.034E-016.711E-05-1.772E+032731097
Magnesium Oxide4.544E-025.008E-06-8.732E+022732073

Section 10.12 – Heat of solution for three common solutions

The enthalpy path related to heat of solution is in another section. These enthalpies are all at 25°C.

Table 10.12.1: Heat of solution.
r
[mol H2O/mol solute]
(∆hs)HCl(g)
[kJ/mol HCl]
(∆hs)NaOH(s)
[kJ/mol NaOH]
(∆hs)H2SO4
[kJ/mol H2SO4]
1-26.22-28.07
2-48.82-41.92
3-56.85-28.87-48.99
4-61.20-34.43-54.06
5-64.05-37.74-58.03
10-69.49-42.51-67.03
50-73.26-42.51-73.34
100-73.85-42.34-73.97
500-74.52-42.38-76.73
1000-74.68-42.47-78.57
5000-74.93-42.68-84.43
10000-74.99-42.72-87.07
-75.14-42.89-96.19

Tables from appendix of “Material and Energy Balances” (Matthew Liberatore). Copyright © “zyBooks” 2016.