Tables from appendix of “Material and Energy Balances” (Matthew Liberatore). Copyright © “zyBooks” 2016, 2017, 2018.

## Section 10.1 – Unit Conversions

Units conversions and prefixes.

Table 10.1.1: Common unit prefixes.
Prefix Abbreviation Conversion Example
Micro μ 1 unit = 1,000,000 μ-unit 1 m = 1,000,000 μm
Milli m 1 unit = 1000 m-unit 1 g = 1000 mg
Centi c 1 unit = 100 c-unit 1 m = 100 cm
Kilo k 1 unit = 0.001 k-unit 1000 g = 1 kg
Table 10.1.2: Common unit conversions.
Type of unit Equivalent values
Mass 1 kg = 2.20462 lbm

1 lbm = 453.593 g

Length 1 m = 3.2808 ft

1 ft = 12 in

1 ft = 30.48 cm

Volume 1 m3 = 1000 L

1 m3= 35.3145 ft3

1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal

Force 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2

1 N = 0.22481 lbf

1 lbf = 32.174 lbm·ft/s2

Pressure 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 Pa = 1.4504 X 10-4 lbf/in.2 (psi)

1 atm = 1.01325 x 105 Pa

1 atm = 1.01325 bar

1 atm = 760 mmHg at 0°C

1 atm = 14.696 psi

1 atm = 33.9 ft H2O at 4 °C

1 atm = 29.921 in. Hg at 0 °C

Energy 1 J = 1 N·m

1 J = 1 Pa·m3

1 kJ = 0.94782 BTU

1 kWh = 3600 kJ

Power 1 kJ/kg = 1000 m2/s2

1 W = 1 J/s

1 W = 0.7376 ft·lbf/s

1 W = 9.4782 x 10-4 BTU/s

1 W = 1.341 x 10-3 hp

Temperature T(K) = T(°C) + 273.15

T(R) = T(°F) + 459.67

T(°F) = 1.8T(°C) + 32

Temperature difference 1.8°F/1°C

1.8°R/1K

1°F/1°R

1°C/1K

Time 1 hr = 60 min

1 min = 60 s

Exploring further:

## Section 10.2 – Nomenclature

Abbreviations used in this book.

Table 10.2.1: Nomenclature.
Symbol Definition (SI Units)
AP Average property
CP Heat capacity (J/K)
CV Heat capacity (J/K)
EK Kinetic energy (J)
EP Potential energy (J)
fconv,i Fractional conversion of component i (-)
fex,i Fractional excess of component i (-)
g Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
H Enthalpy (J)
h Specific enthalpy (J/kg or J/mol)
ha Absolute humidity or moisture content (-)
m Mass (kg)
M Total mass (kg)
Mass flow rate (kg/s)
i,j Component mass flow rate of stream i and component j (kg/s)
i Mass flow rate of stream i (kg/s)
MW Molecular weight (kg/kmol)
n Moles (mol)
N Total moles (mol)
Molar flow rate (mol/s)
i Molar flow rate of stream i (mol/s)
i,j Component molar flow rate of stream i and component j (mol/s)
P Pressure (Pa)
Pabs Absolute pressure (Pa)
Patm Atmospheric pressure (Pa)
Pc Critical pressure (Pa)
Pg Gauge pressure (Pa)
Pi Partial pressure (Pa)
Pr Reduced pressure (-)
PRi Property of component i
Pisat Vapor or saturation pressure (Pa)
Q Heat (J)
R Universal gas constant (J/mol-K)
RH Relative humidity (-)
STP Standard temperature pressure (-)
T Temperature or dry bulb temperature (K)
t Time (s)
Tc Critical temperature (K)
TDEW Dew point temperature (K)
Tr Reduced temperature (-)
Tsat Saturation temperature (K)
TWET Wet bulb temperature (K)
U Internal energy (J)
u Specific internal energy (J/mol)
V Volume (m3)
v Specific volume (m3/mol)
v Velocity (m/s)
Volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
i,j Volumetric flow rate of stream i and component j (m3/s)
i Volumetric flow rate of stream i (m3/s)
Vr Reduced volume (-)
vSTP Specific volume at STP conditions (m3/kmol)
W Work (J)
WFL Flow work (J)
WMB Moving boundary work (J)
WS Shaft work (J)
x Mole fraction or liquid mole fraction (-)
y Mole fraction or vapor mole fraction (-)
z Vertical height (m)
Z Compressibility factor (-)
Δ Difference between two states or properties
Δhf Heat of formation (J/mol)
Δhm Heat of fusion or melting (J/mol)
ΔhMIX Heat of mixing (J/mol)
Δhf° Standard heat of formation (J/mol)
Δhr° Standard heat of reaction (J/mol)
Δhr Heat of reaction (J/mol)
Δhs Heat of solution (J/mol)
Δhv Heat of vaporization (J/mol)
μ Viscosity (Pa-s)
vi Stoichiometric coefficient (-)
ξ Extent of reaction (mol or mol/s)
ρ Density (kg/m3)

## Section 10.3 – Finding data and correlations

Data are important for engineering calculations including material and energy balances. These facts and data are adapted from various sources listed below. Use of the data is intended for educational purposes and should be verified from primary sources when completing engineering calculations. These data are not restricted by copyright laws. Therefore, these tables can easily be copied to a spreadsheet for simplifying calculations.

Data has been adapted from various sources including: Elementary principles of chemical processes by Richard M. Felder and Ronald W. Rousseau, John Wiley, 2000; E.W. Lemmon, M.O. McLinden and D.G. Friend, “Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P.J. Linstrom and W.G. Mallard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. Yaws’ Critical Property Data for Chemical Engineers and Chemists on knovel.com; Knovel Critical Tables (2nd Edition).

Exploring further:

A few place to find unit converters, the periodic table, and general engineering data.

• Knovel unit converter (free): Most units and easily swap from one unit to another.
• Periodic Table (free): This website offers an extensive look at all of the elements.
• Knovel: Free access with student membership to AIChE (free for undergraduate students at aiche.org). Lots of digitized books allowing download to spreadsheets with citations included. DIPPR 801 Database is fully searchable and an excellent resources for vapor pressure and heat capacity as functions of temperature.
• Access Engineering: Free at some universities. Fully searchable Perry’s Handbook and many other references.
• NIST Chemistry WebBook: Free at this time. Good for steam tables (P, T, v, h, u, s, etc.), properties of many common fluids, phase change energies (e.g., heat of vaporization), vapor pressure/Antoine coefficients, heat capacity information, etc.
• Engineering Toolbox: Web based data and many correlations/equations of interest.

## Section 10.4 – Periodic table of the elements

Atomic masses have been limited to 4 significant figures for simplicity.

Table 10.4.1: Periodic table of the elements.
Element Name Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Mass
Hydrogen H 1 1.008
Helium He 2 4.003
Lithium Li 3 6.941
Beryllium Be 4 9.012
Boron B 5 10.81
Carbon C 6 12.01
Nitrogen N 7 14.01
Oxygen O 8 16.00
Fluorine F 9 19.00
Neon Ne 10 20.18
Sodium Na 11 22.99
Magnesium Mg 12 24.31
Aluminum Al 13 26.98
Silicon Si 14 28.09
Phosphorus P 15 30.97
Sulfur S 16 32.07
Chlorine Cl 17 35.45
Argon Ar 18 39.95
Potassium K 19 39.10
Calcium Ca 20 40.08
Scandium Sc 21 44.96
Titanium Ti 22 47.87
Chromium Cr 24 52.00
Manganese Mn 25 54.94
Iron Fe 26 55.85
Cobalt Co 27 58.93
Nickel Ni 28 58.69
Copper Cu 29 63.55
Zinc Zn 30 65.41
Gallium Ga 31 69.72
Germanium Ge 32 72.64
Arsenic As 33 74.92
Selenium Se 34 78.96
Bromine Br 35 79.90
Krypton Kr 36 83.80
Rubidium Rb 37 85.47
Strontium Sr 38 87.62
Yttrium Y 39 88.91
Zirconium Zr 40 91.22
Niobium Nb 41 92.91
Molybdenum Mo 42 95.94
Technetium Tc 43 98
Ruthenium Ru 44 101.1
Rhodium Rh 45 102.9
Silver Ag 47 107.9
Indium In 49 114.8
Tin Sn 50 118.71
Antimony Sb 51 121.8
Tellurium Te 52 127.6
Iodine I 53 126.9
Xenon Xe 54 131.3
Cesium Cs 55 132.9
Barium Ba 56 137.3
Lanthanum La 57 138.9
Cerium Ce 58 140.1
Praseodymium Pr 59 140.9
Neodymium Nd 60 144.2
Promethium Pm 61 145
Samarium Sm 62 150.4
Europium Eu 63 152.0
Terbium Tb 65 158.9
Dysprosium Dy 66 162.5
Holmium Ho 67 164.9
Erbium Er 68 167.3
Thulium Tm 69 168.9
Ytterbium Yb 70 173.0
Lutetium Lu 71 175.0
Hafnium Hf 72 178.5
Tantalum Ta 73 180.9
Tungsten W 74 183.8
Rhenium Re 75 186.2
Osmium Os 76 190.2
Iridium Ir 77 192.2
Platinum Pt 78 195.1
Gold Au 79 197.0
Mercury Hg 80 200.6
Thallium Tl 81 204.4
Bismuth Bi 83 209.0
Polonium Po 84 209
Astatine At 85 210
Francium Fr 87 223
Actinium Ac 89 227
Thorium Th 90 232.0
Protactinium Pa 91 231.0
Uranium U 92 238.0
Neptunium Np 93 237
Plutonium Pu 94 239
Americium Am 95 243
Curium Cm 96 247
Berkelium Bk 97 247
Californium Cf 98 251
Einsteinium Es 99 252
Fermium Fm 100 257
Mendelevium Md 101 258
Nobelium No 102 259
Lawrencium Lr 103 262
Rutherfordium Rf 104 261
Dubnium Db 105 262
Seaborgium Sg 106 266
Bohrium Bh 107 264
Hassium Hs 108 277
Meitnerium Mt 109 268
Roentgentium Rg 111 272
Copernicum Cn 112 285
Ununtrium Uut 113 284
Flerovium Fl 114 289
Ununpentium Uup 115 288
Livermorium Lv 116 292
Ununseptium Uus 117 293
Ununoctium Uuo 118 294

## Section 10.5 – Physical properties

Physical properties are needed to perform many material or energy balance calculations. All properties are at 1 atm unless otherwise noted.

Table 1: Formula, molecular weight, and density (ρ)

Table 2: Melting temperature (Tm), heat of melting (Δhm), vaporization temperature (Tv), heat of vaporization (Δhv), critical temperature (Tc), critical pressure (Pc)

Table 3: Standard heat of formation (Δhfo), phase of formation, standard heat of combustion (Δhco), phase of combustion

The heats of combustion are for products of CO2(g) and H2O(l).

 Component Formula MW Density at 25ºC g/cm3 Acetaldehyde CH3CHO 44.05 0.774 Acetic Acid CH3COOH 60.05 1.043 Acetone C3H6O 58.08 0.786 Acetylene C2H2 26.04 0.377 Ammonia NH3 17.03 .602 Ammonium Hydroxide NH4OH 35.05 — Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO3 80.05 1.725 Ammonium Sulfate (NH4)2SO4 132.14 1.769 Aniline C6H7N 93.13 1.018 Benzaldehyde C6H5CHO 106.12 1.04 Benzene C6H6 78.11 0.873 Benzoic Acid C7H6O2 122.12 1.266 Benzyl Alcohol C7H8O 108.13 1.041 Bromine Br2 159.81 3.103 1,2-Butadiene C4H6 54.09 0.646 1,3-Butadiene C4H7 54.09 0.615 n-Butane C4H10 58.12 0.573 Isobutane C4H10 58.12 0.552 1-Butene C4H8 56.11 0.588 Calcium Carbide CaC2 64.1 2.22 Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 100.09 2.71 Calcium Chloride CaCl2 110.98 2.15 Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 74.1 2.24 Calcium Oxide CaO 56.08 3.34 Calcium Phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 310.18 3.14 Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 116.17 2.915 Calcium Sulfate CaSO4 136.14 2.96 Calcium Sulfate-gypsum CaSO4▪2H2O 172.18 2.32 Carbon C 12.01 2.26 Carbon Dioxide CO2 44.01 0.173 Carbon Disulfide CS2 76.14 1.26 Carbon Monoxide CO 28.01 — Carbon Tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 1.58 Chlorine Cl2 70.91 1.40 Chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 112.56 1.10 Chloroform CHCl3 119.38 1.48 Copper Cu 63.55 8.96 Cyclohexane C6H12 84.16 0.773 Cyclopentane C5H10 70.13 0.750 n-Decane C10H22 142.29 0.728 Diethyl Ether (C2H5)2O 74.12 0.708 Ethane C2H6 30.07 0.315 Ethyl Acetate C4H8O2 88.11 0.894 Ethanol C2H5OH 46.07 0.787 Ethyl Benzene C8H10 106.19 0.867 Ethyl Bromide C2H5Br 108.97 1.46 Ethyl Chloride C2H5Cl 64.51 0.890 3-Ethyl Hexane C8H18 114.22 0.717 Ethylene C2H4 28.05 0.568 Ethylene Glycol C2H6O2 62.07 1.113 Ferric Oxide Fe2O3 159.69 5.25 Ferrous Oxide FeO 71.84 6.00 Ferrous Sulfide FeS 87.91 4.70 Formaldehyde H2CO 30.03 0.763 Formic Acid CH2O2 46.03 1.22 Glycerol C3H8O3 92.10 1.26 Helium He 4 — n-Heptane C7H16 100.2 0.682 n-Hexane C6H14 86.18 0.656 Hydrogen H2 2.02 — Hydrogen Bromide HBr 80.91 1.73 Hydrogen Chloride HCl 36.46 0.80 Hydrogen Cyanide HCN 27.03 20.73 Hydrogen Fluoride HF 20.01 0.941 Hydrogen Sulfide H2S 34.08 0.777 Iodine I2 253.8 4.93 Iron Fe 55.85 7.87 Lead Pb 207.21 11.3 Lead Oxide PbO 223.21 9.35 Magnesium Mg 24.32 1.74 Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 95.21 2.325 Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2 58.32 2.37 Magnesium Oxide MgO 40.30 3.60 Mercury Hg 200.59 13.53 Methane CH4 16.04 0.423 Methyl Acetate C3H6O2 74.08 0.927 Methanol CH3OH 32.04 0.786 Methyl Amine CH5N 31.06 0.703 Methyl Chloride CH3Cl 50.49 0.913 Methyl Ethyl Ketone C4H8O 72.1 0.799 Naphthalene C10H8 128.16 1.145 Nickel Ni 58.69 8.9 Nitric Acid HNO3 63.02 1.55 Nitrobenzene C6H5O2N 123.11 1.20 Nitrogen N2 28.02 — Nitrogen Dioxide NO2 46.01 1.44 Nitric Oxide NO 30.01 — Nitrogen Pentoxide N2O5 108.02 2.00 Nitrogen Tetraoxide N2O4 92 1.45 Nitrous Oxide N2O 44.02 0.742 n-Nonane C9H20 128.25 0.715 n-Octane C8H18 114.22 0.699 Oxalic Acid C2H2O4 90.04 1.9 Oxygen O2 32 — n-Pentane C5H12 72.15 0.621 Isopentane C5H12 72.15 0.616 1-Pentene C5H10 70.13 0.641 Phenol C6H5OH 94.11 1.05 Phosphoric Acid H3PO4 98 1.834 Phosphorus(white) P4 123.9 1.82 Propane C3H8 44.09 0.493 Propylene C3H6 42.08 0.504 n-Propyl Alcohol C3H7OH 60.09 0.802 Isopropyl Alcohol C3H7OH 60.09 0.783 n-PropylBenzene C9H12 120.19 0.862 Silicon Dioxide SiO2 60.09 2.20 Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3 84.01 2.2 Sodium Bisulfate NaHSO4 120.07 2.43 Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 105.99 2.54 Sodium Chloride NaCl 58.45 2.17 Sodium Cyanide NaCN 49.01 1.60 Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 40 2.13 Sodium Nitrate NaNO3 85 2.257 Sodium Sulfate Na2SO4 142.05 2.698 Sodium Sulfide Na2S 78.05 1.856 Sodium Thiosulfate Na2S2O3 158.11 1.667 Sulfur(rhombic) S8 256.53 2.07 Sulfur(monoclinic) S8 256.53 1.96 Sulfur Dioxide SO2 64.07 1.37 Sulfur Trioxide SO3 80.07 1.92 Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 98.08 1.84 Toluene C7H8 92.13 0.866 Water H2O 18.016 0.977 m-Xylene C8H10 106.16 0.861 o-Xylene C8H10 106.16 0.876 p-Xylene C8H10 106.16 0.858 Zinc Zn 65.38 7.14

 Component Tm ºC Δhm(Tm) kJ/mol Tv ºC Δhv(Tv) kJ/mol Tc K Pc atm Acetaldehyde -123.7 2.31 20.4 23.99 466 54.77 Acetic Acid 16.45 11.72 118.2 23.33 594.8 57.1 Acetone -95 5.69 56 30.2 508.2 46.41 Acetylene — 3.76 Sublimes at -83.8 ºC 11.52 308.3 60.58 Ammonia -76 5.653 -33 23.351 405.5 111.3 Ammonium Hydroxide -79 — — — — — Ammonium Nitrate 169.6 5.4 Decomposes at 210 ºC Ammonium Sulfate 513 — Decomposes at 513 ºC Aniline -6.02 10.54 184.2 44.221 699.0 52.4 Benzaldehyde -26 9.32 179 42.13 695 45.89 Benzene 5.53 9.837 80.1 30.765 562.6 48.6 Benzoic Acid 122.2 18.062 249.8 50.625 751 44.12 Benzyl Alcohol -15.4 8.79 205.2 51.66 720.15 44.90 Bromine -7.25 10.573 58.6 29.963 584.0 102 1,2-Butadiene -136.5 6.96 10.85 24.22 452 43.03 1,3-Butadiene -109.1 7.98 -4.41 22.479 425.0 42.7 n-Butane -138.3 4.661 -.05 22.305 425.2 37.47 Isobutane -159.6 4.54 -11.7 21.292 408.1 36 1-Butene -185.3 3.848 -6.3 22.443 419.6 39.7 Calcium Carbide 2300 32 — — — — Calcium Carbonate 1339 36 Decomposes at 8825 ºC — -1206.9 Calcium Chloride 771.85 28.05 1935.45 235 3620 — Calcium Hydroxide -H2O at 580 ºC -H2O at 580 ºC Calcium Oxide 2570 50 2850 — — — Calcium Phosphate 1670 — — — — — Calcium Silicate 1530 48.62 — — — — Calcium Sulfate 1450 28 — — — — Calcium Sulfate-gypsum — — -1.5 H2O at 128 ºC — — Carbon Sublimes at 3825 ºC 4827 355.8 6810 2201 Carbon Dioxide -56.6 9.019 -78 Sublimes 304.2 72.9 Carbon Disulfide -112.1 4.39 46.25 26.8 552 78 Carbon Monoxide -205.1 0.837 -191.5 5.91 133 34.5 Carbon Tetrachloride -22.9 2.65 76.7 30 556.4 45 Chlorine -101 6.406 -34.06 20.4 417 76.1 Chlorobenzene -45 9.556 132.1 35.82 632.4 44.6 Chloroform -63.7 8.8 61 29.875 536 54 Copper 1083 13.01 2562 300.4 5123 6332 Cyclohexane 6.54 2.677 80.7 30.1 553.7 40.4 Cyclopentane -93.4 0.609 49.3 27.3 511.8 44.55 n-Decane -29.9 28.715 173.8 40.017 619 20.8 Diethyl Ether -116.3 7.19 34.6 27.078 467 35.6 Ethane -183.3 2.859 -88.6 14.72 305.4 48.2 Ethyl Acetate -83.8 10.48 77 32.231 523.3 — Ethanol -114.6 4.93 78.5 39.4 516.3 60.8 Ethyl Benzene -94.67 9.163 136.2 35.98 619.7 35.62 Ethyl Bromide -119.1 5.858 38.2 27.526 504 61.5 Ethyl Chloride -136.4 4.452 12.27 24.7 460.4 52 3-Ethyl Hexane — — 118.5 34.27 567 26.4 Ethylene -169.2 3.35 -103.7 13.54 283.1 49.75 Ethylene Glycol -13 9.985 197.2 52.495 720 80.93 Ferric Oxide 1594 138.1 — — — — Ferrous Oxide 1376.85 24.058 — — — — Ferrous Sulfide 1193 31.5 — — — — Formaldehyde -92 7.05 -19.1 23.16 408 65 Formic Acid 8.4 12.68 100.5 21.99 588 57.34 Glycerol 18.2 18.3 290 66.128 850 74.02 Helium -269.7 0.014 -268.9 0.083 5.2 2.26 n-Heptane -90.59 14.03 98.43 31.69 540.2 27 n-Hexane -95.32 13.03 68.74 28.85 507.9 29.9 Hydrogen -259.19 0.117 -252.76 0.904 33.3 12.96 Hydrogen Bromide -86 2.406 -67 18.06 363.15 84.40 Hydrogen Chloride -114.2 1.99 -85 16.36 324.6 81.5 Hydrogen Cyanide -13.92 8.406 26 27.45 456.65 53.21 Hydrogen Fluoride -83 4.58 19.52 7.53 461.15 63.95 Hydrogen Sulfide -85.5 2.38 -60.3 18.67 373.6 88.9 Iodine 113.3 15.52 184.2 41.88 826 115.02 Iron 1535 13.81 2860 340 9340 10017.27 Lead 327.4 4.77 1750 179.9 5400 850.04 Lead Oxide 886 25.5 1472 207 2842.26 231.31 Magnesium 650 8.48 1090 128 2241.04 2765.75 Magnesium Chloride 714 43.1 1418 156.2 2754.32 224.15 Magnesium Hydroxide Decomposes at 350 ºC Decomposes at 350 ºC — — Magnesium Oxide 2831.85 77.4 3600 321.62 5950 33.47 Mercury -38.87 2.295 356.69 59.2 1735 1587 Methane -182.5 0.94 -161.5 8.179 190.7 45.8 Methyl Acetate -98.9 7.486 57.1 30.612 506.7 46.88 Methanol -97.9 3.215 64.7 35.27 513.2 79.91 Methyl Amine -92.7 6.134 -6.33 26.11 429.9 73.6 Methyl Chloride -97.9 6.431 -24 21.55 416.1 65.8 Methyl Ethyl Ketone -87.1 8.44 79.64 31.22 535.5 41 Naphthalene 80 19.02 217.8 46.34 784.4 39.97 Nickel 1452 17.48 2900 377.5 6986 4854.18 Nitric Acid -41.6 10.47 83 31.72 520 68 Nitrobenzene 5.76 10.82 210.7 44.08 719 43.42 Nitrogen -210 0.72 -195.8 5.577 126.2 34.15 Nitrogen Dioxide -11.25 14.65 21 24.66 431 100 Nitric Oxide -161 2.301 -151.8 13.53 179.2 63.95 Nitrogen Pentoxide 30 34.64 47 61.77 515.51 63.49 Nitrogen Tetraoxide -11.25 14.65 21.1 38.12 431 100 Nitrous Oxide -91.1 6.54 -88.8 16.38 309.5 71.7 n-Nonane -53.8 15.47 150.6 37.15 595 22.60 n-Octane -57 20.74 125.5 34.77 568.8 24.5 Oxalic Acid 189.5 — 295.85 72.57 804 69.82 Oxygen -218.75 0.444 -182.97 6.82 154.4 49.7 n-Pentane -129.6 8.393 36.07 25.77 469.8 33.3 Isopentane -160.1 5.16 27.7 24.79 461 33.36 1-Pentene -165.2 5.88 29.97 25.71 464.8 35.13 Phenol 40.91 11.43 181.4 47.31 692.1 60.5 Phosphoric Acid 42.36 13.39 406.85 — 1030 50.04 Phosphorus(white) 44.2 0.66 280 12.4 994 82.20 Propane -187.69 3.52 -42.07 18.77 369.9 42 Propylene -185.2 3 -47.69 18.42 365.1 45.4 n-Propyl Alcohol -127 5.372 97.04 41.38 536.7 51.07 Isopropyl Alcohol -87.87 5.41 82.24 39.87 508.8 47.02 n-Propyl Benzene -99.5 8.54 159.2 38.24 638.7 31.3 Silicon Dioxide 1710 14.2 2950 — 5021.49 777.82 Sodium Bicarbonate Decomposes at 270 ºC — — Sodium Bisulfate 186 — — — — — Sodium Carbonate Decomposes at 854 ºC — — Sodium Chloride 808 28.16 1465 130.05 3400 350.36 Sodium Cyanide 562 8.79 1497 148.1 2900 234.49 Sodium Hydroxide 322.85 6.6 1556.85 164.84 2820 246.73 Sodium Nitrate 307 15 380 — 1321 — Sodium Sulfate 890 23.6 — — — — Sodium Sulfide 950 19.3 — — — — Sulfur(rhombic) 113 10.04 444.6 83.7 — — Sulfur(monoclinic) 119 14.17 444.6 83.7 — — Sulfur Dioxide -73.15 7.402 -10.02 25.20 430.7 77.8 Sulfur Trioxide 16.84 8.6 44.75 40.71 491.4 81.03 Sulfuric Acid 10.31 10.31 336.85 50.2 924 63.13 Toluene -94.99 6.619 110.62 33.47 593.9 40.3 Water 0 6.0095 100 40.656 647.4 218.3 m-Xylene -47.87 11.569 139.1 36.4 619 34.95 o-Xylene -25.18 13.598 144.42 36.82 631.5 36.83 p-Xylene 13.26 17.11 138.35 36.07 618 34.65 Zinc 419.5 7.32 907 123.6 3170 2866

 Component Δhof kJ/mol Phase of formation Δhoc kJ/mol Δhoc kJ/mol Phase of combustion Acetaldehyde -166.2 gas -1104.5 — gas Acetic Acid -486.2 liquid -815.07 — liquid Acetic Acid -438.15 gas -919.73 gas Acetone -248.2 liquid -1659.16 — liquid Acetone -216.7 gas — -1821.4 gas Acetylene 226.8 gas -1257.07 — gas Ammonia -67.2 liquid — — — Ammonia -46.2 gas -316.84 — gas Ammonium Hydroxide -366.48 aqueous — — — Ammonium Nitrate -365.14 solid — — — Ammonium Nitrate -399.36 aqueous — — — Ammonium Sulfate -1179.3 solid — — — Ammonium Sulfate -1173.1 aqueous — — — Aniline — — -3250.16 — liquid Benzaldehyde -88.83 liquid -3401.2 — liquid Benzaldehyde -36.79 gas — — — Benzene 48.66 liquid -3138.76 — liquid Benzene 82.93 gas — -3301.5 gas Benzoic Acid — — -3171.97 — solid Benzyl Alcohol — — -3569.9 — liquid Bromine 0 liquid — — — 1,2-Butadiene — — -2461.87 — gas 1,3-Butadiene — — -2409.57 — gas n-Butane -147 liquid — -2855.6 liquid n-Butane -129.79 gas -2656.43 — gas Isobutane -158.4 liquid — -2849 liquid Isobutane -134.5 gas -2648.23 — gas 1-Butene 1.17 gas -2540.9 — gas Calcium Carbide -59.8 solid — — — Calcium Carbonate — — — — — Calcium Cholride -794.96 solid — — — Calcium Hydroxide -986.59 solid — — — Calcium Oxide -635.6 solid — — — Calcium Phosphate -4138 solid — — — Calcium Silicate -1584 solid — — — Calcium Sulfate -1432.7 solid — — — Calcium Sulfate -1450.4 aqueous — — — Calcium Sulfate-gypsum -2021 solid — — — Carbon 0 solid — -393.51 solid Carbon Dioxide -412.9 liquid — — — Carbon Dioxide -393.5 gas — — — Carbon Disulfide 87.9 liquid -1275.54 — liquid Carbon Disulfide 116.94 gas 1102.6 — gas Carbon Monoxide -110.52 gas — -282.99 gas Carbon Tetrachloride -139.5 liquid –267.88 — liquid Carbon Tetrachloride -95.8 gas — -385 gas Chlorine 0 gas — — — Chlorobenzene — — 2980.98 — liquid Chloroform -131.8 liquid -381.75 — liquid Copper 0 solid — — — Cyclohexane -156.2 liquid -3658.81 — liquid Cyclohexane -123.1 gas — -3953 gas Cyclopentane -105.9 liquid -3072.39 — liquid Cyclopentane -77.2 gas — -3319.5 gas n-Decane -249.7 liquid -6305.81 — liquid n-Decane — — — -6829.7 gas Diethyl Ether -272.8 liquid -2504.34 — liquid Ethane -83.79 gas -1428.73 — gas Ethyl Acetate -463.2 liquid -2046.67 — liquid Ethyl Acetate -444.49 gas — — — Ethanol -277.63 liquid -1238.13 — liquid Ethanol -235.31 gas -1409.25 gas Ethyl Benzene -12.46 liquid -4351.3 — liquid Ethyl Benzene 29.79 gas -4607.1 gas Ethyl Bromide -54.4 gas -1285.03 — liquid Ethyl Chloride -112.29 gas -1279.32 — gas 3-Ethyl Hexane -250.5 liquid — -5407.1 liquid 3-Ethyl Hexane -210.9 gas — -5509.8 gas Ethylene 52.28 gas -1323.2 — gas Ethylene Glycol -451.5 liquid -1072.54 — liquid Ethylene Glycol -387.1 gas — — — Ferric Oxide -822.2 solid — — — Ferrous Oxide -272.05 solid — — — Ferrous Sulfide -101.67 solid — — — Formaldehyde -108.6 gas -526.75 — gas Formic Acid -409.2 liquid -234.76 — liquid Formic Acid -378.6 gas — — — Glycerol -665.9 liquid -1498.95 — liquid Helium 0 gas — — — n-Heptane -224.4 liquid -4469.75 — liquid n-Heptane -187.8 gas — -4853.5 gas n-Hexane -198.8 liquid -3857.92 — liquid n-Hexane -167.2 gas — -4194.8 gas Hydrogen 0 gas -241.83 — gas Hydrogen Bromide -36.23 gas — — — Hydrogen Chloride -92.31 gas — — — Hydrogen Cyanide 135.14 gas — — — Hydrogen Fluoride -272.55 gas — — — Hydrogen Fluoride -316.9 aqueous — — — Hydrogen Sulfide -20.5 gas -518.17 — gas Iodine 0 solid — — — Iron 0 solid — — — Lead 0 solid — — — Lead Oxide -219.41 solid — — — Magnesium 0 solid — — — Magnesium Chloride 641.62 sloid — — — Magnesium Hydroxide -924.66 solid — — — Magnesium Oxide -601.8 solid — — — Mercury 0 solid — — — Methane -74.85 gas -802.68 — gas Methyl Acetate -409.4 liquid -1463.54 — liquid Methanol -238.6 liquid -641.14 — liquid Methanol -201.2 gas -764 gas Methyl Amine -22.49 gas -975.6 — gas Methyl Chloride -81.92 gas 674.27 — gas Methyl Ethyl Ketone — — -2271.58 — liquid Naphthalene — — -5034.1 — solid Nickel 0 solid — — — Nitric Acid -173.23 liquid — — — Nitric Acid -205.57 aqueous — — — Nitrobenzene — — -2989.22 — liquid Nitrogen 0 gas — — — Nitrogen Dioxide 33.1 gas 33.1 — gas Nitric Oxide 90.37 gas 90.29 — gas Nitrogen Pentoxide — — — — — Nitrogen Tetraoxide 9.08 gas — — — Nitrous Oxide 81.5 gas 82.05 — gas n-Nonane -229 liquid -5693.8 — liquid n-Nonane — — — -6171 gas n-Octane -249.9 liquid -5081.06 — liquid n-Octane -208.4 gas -5512.2 gas Oxalic Acid -826.8 solid -305.17 — gas Oxygen 0 gas — — — n-Pentane -173 liquid -3245.79 — liquid n-Pentane -146.4 gas — -3536.1 gas Isopentane -179.3 liquid -3240.09 — liquid Isopentane -153.69 gas — -3529.2 gas 1-Pentene -21.29 gas -3129.74 — liquid Phenol -158.1 liquid -2978.8 — solid Phenol -96.39 gas — — — Phosphoric Acid -1281.1 solid — — — Phosphoric Acid -1278.6 aqueous, 1 H2O — — — Propane -119.8 liquid — -2204 liquid Propane -103.8 gas -2043.18 — gas Propylene 19.71 gas -1925.75 — gas n-Propyl Alcohol -300.7 liquid -1851.3 — liquid n-Propyl Alcohol -255.2 gas — -2068.6 gas Isopropyl Alcohol -310.9 liquid -1835.31 — liquid n-Propyl Benzene -38.4 liquid — -5218.2 liquid n-Propyl Benzene 7.82 gas — -5264.48 gas Silicon Dioxide -851 solid — — — Sodium Bicarbonate -945.6 solid — — — Sodium Bisulfate -1126.3 solid — — — Sodium Carbonate -1130.9 solid — — — Sodium Chloride -411 solid — — — Sodium Cyanide -87.5 solid — — — Sodium Hydroxide -426.6 solid — — — Sodium Hydroxide -469.4 aqueous — — — Sodium Nitrate -466.7 solid — — — Sodium Sulfate -1384.5 solid — — — Sodium Sulfide -366.1 solid — — — Sodium Thiosulfate -1117.1 solid — — — Sulfur(rhombic) 0 solid — — — Sulfur(monoclinic) 0.3 solid — — — Sulfur Dioxide -296.9 gas — — — Sulfur Trioxide -395.18 gas — — — Sulfuric Acid -811.32 liquid — — — Sulfuric Acid -907.51 aqueous — — — Toluene 12 liquid -3738.57 — liquid Toluene 50 gas — -3947.9 gas Water -285.84 liquid — — — Water -241.83 gas — — — m-Xylene -25.42 liquid -4338.28 — liquid m-Xylene 17.24 gas — -4594.5 gas o-Xylene 24.44 liquid -4339.41 — liquid o-Xylene 18.99 gas — -4596.3 gas p-Xylene 24.43 liquid -4339.49 — liquid p-Xylene 17.95 gas — -4595.2 gas Zinc 0 solid — — —

## Section 10.6 – Properties of subcooled liquid water

The properties of subcooled liquid water include: specific volume, specific internal energy, specific enthalpy, and specific entropy. The reference state is uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C. The table is divided into sections by pressure. The tables are divided into different parts to ease use on a tablet or phone.

Table 1: P = 10 kPa to 1000 kPa

Table 2: P = 2500 kPa to 20000 kPa

 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 10 kPa Tsat = 45.806°C Sat. 0.0010103 191.80 191.81 0.64920 80 60 40 0.0010079 167.53 167.54 0.57240 20 0.0010018 83.911 83.921 0.29648 10 0.001000 42.020 42.030 0.15109 5 0.001000 21.019 21.029 0.076254 2 0.001000 8.3912 8.4012 0.030608 P = 50 kPa Tsat = 81.317°C Sat. 0.001030 340.49 340.54 1.0912 80 0.0010291 334.96 335.01 1.0756 60 0.0010171 251.15 251.21 0.83128 40 0.0010079 167.52 167.57 0.57239 20 0.0010018 83.909 83.959 0.29647 10 0.001000 42.019 42.069 0.15108 5 0.001000 21.019 21.069 0.076253 2 0.001000 8.3915 8.4415 0.030609 P = 100 kPa Tsat = 99.606 °C Sat. 0.0010432 417.40 417.50 1.3028 80 0.001029 334.95 335.05 1.0755 60 0.0010171 251.15 251.25 0.83125 40 0.0010078 167.51 167.62 0.57237 20 0.0010018 83.906 84.006 0.29646 10 0.001000 42.018 42.118 0.15108 5 0.001000 21.019 21.119 0.076252 2 0.001000 8.3920 8.4920 0.03061 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 250 kPa Tsat = 127.41°C Sat. 0.0010672 535.08 535.34 1.6072 175 150 125 0.0010649 524.82 525.09 1.5815 100 0.0010434 419.02 419.28 1.3071 50 0.001012 209.29 209.55 0.70370 25 0.0010029 104.81 105.06 0.36716 5 0.001000 21.018 21.268 0.07625 P = 500 kPa Tsat= 151.83°C Sat. 0.0010925 639.54 640.09 1.8604 175 150 0.0010905 631.65 632.19 1.8418 125 0.0010648 524.73 525.26 1.5813 100 0.0010433 418.94 419.47 1.3069 50 0.0010119 209.26 209.76 0.70358 25 0.0010028 104.79 105.29 0.3671 5 0.001000 21.017 21.517 0.076246 P = 1000 kPa Tsat= 179.88°C Sat. 0.0011272 761.39 762.52 2.1381 175 0.0011206 739.96 741.08 2.0905 150 0.001090 631.41 632.50 1.8412 125 0.0010645 524.54 525.60 1.5808 100 0.001043 418.80 419.84 1.3065 50 0.0010117 209.18 210.19 0.70335 25 0.0010026 104.75 105.75 0.36697 5 0.001000 21.015 22.014 0.076237
 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 2500 kPa Tsat= 223.95°C Sat. 0.0011974 958.91 961.91 2.5543 275 250 200 0.0011556 849.76 852.65 2.3290 150 0.0010891 630.71 633.43 1.8395 100 0.0010422 418.36 420.97 1.3053 50 0.001011 208.96 211.49 0.70266 25 0.0010019 104.63 107.14 0.36658 P = 5000 kPa Tsat = 263.94°C Sat. 0.0012864 1148.2 1154.6 2.9210 275 250 0.001250 1079.5 1085.7 2.7910 200 0.0011531 847.91 853.68 2.3251 150 0.0010875 629.55 834.98 1.8368 100 0.001041 417.64 422.85 1.3034 50 0.001010 208.59 213.64 0.7015 25 0.0010008 104.44 109.45 0.36592 P = 7500 kPa Tsat = 290.54°C Sat. 0.0013682 1282.7 1292.9 3.1662 275 0.0013134 1200.4 1210.2 3.0174 250 0.0012454 1076.4 1085.7 2.7851 200 0.0011506 846.10 854.73 2.3212 150 0.0010858 628.40 636.54 1.8341 100 0.001040 416.93 424.73 1.3015 50 0.0010088 208.22 215.79 0.70035 25 0.001000 104.25 111.75 0.36526 P = 10000 kPa Tsat = 311.00°C Sat. 0.0014526 1393.5 1408.1 3.3606 350 300 0.001398 1329.4 1343.3 3.2488 250 0.0012412 1073.4 1085.8 2.7792 200 0.0011482 844.31 855.80 2.3174 100 0.0010385 416.23 426.62 1.2996 50 0.0010078 207.86 217.94 0.6992 25 0.00099854 104.06 114.05 0.3646 P =15000 kPa Tsat= 342.16°C Sat. 0.001657 1585.3 1610.2 3.6846 350 300 0.0013783 1317.6 1338.3 3.2279 250 0.001233 1067.6 1086.1 2.7680 200 0.0011435 840.84 857.99 2.3100 100 0.0010361 414.85 430.39 1.2958 50 0.0010056 207.15 222.23 0.6969 25 0.00099635 103.69 118.63 0.36325 P = 20000 kPa Tsat = 365.75°C Sat. 0.002040 1786.4 1827.2 4.0156 350 0.0016649 1612.7 1646.0 3.7290 300 0.0013611 1307.1 1334.4 3.2091 250 0.0012254 1062.2 1086.7 2.7573 200 0.001139 837.49 860.27 2.3027 100 0.0010337 413.50 434.17 1.2920 50 0.0010035 206.44 226.51 0.69461 25 0.00099419 103.32 123.20 0.36187

## Section 10.7 – Saturated water – temperature table

Reference state: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: Specific volume (v) and specific internal energy (u)

Table 2: Specific enthalpy (h) and specific entropy (s)

 Volume Internal Energy m3/kg kJ/kg Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Δu T, °C Psat, kPa vf vg uf ug ufg 0.01 0.612 0.001000 205.99 0.000 2374.9 2374.9 5 0.873 0.001000 147.01 21.019 2381.8 2360.8 10 1.228 0.001000 106.30 42.020 2388.6 2346.6 15 1.706 0.001001 77.875 62.980 2395.5 2332.5 20 2.339 0.001002 57.757 83.912 2402.3 2318.4 25 3.170 0.001003 43.337 104.83 2409.1 2304.3 30 4.247 0.001004 32.878 125.73 2415.9 2290.2 35 5.629 0.001006 25.205 146.63 2422.7 2276.1 40 7.385 0.001008 19.515 167.53 2429.4 2261.9 45 9.595 0.001010 15.252 188.43 2436.1 2247.7 50 12.352 0.001012 12.027 209.33 2442.7 2233.4 55 15.762 0.001015 9.5643 230.24 2449.3 2219.1 60 19.946 0.001017 7.6672 251.16 2455.9 2204.7 65 25.042 0.001020 6.1935 272.09 2462.4 2190.3 70 31.201 0.001023 5.0395 293.03 2468.9 2175.9 75 38.595 0.001026 4.1289 313.99 2475.2 2161.2 80 47.414 0.001029 3.4052 334.96 2481.6 2146.6 85 57.867 0.001032 2.8258 355.95 2487.8 2131.9 90 70.182 0.001036 2.3591 376.97 2494.0 2117.0 95 84.608 0.001040 1.9806 398.00 2500.0 2102.0 100 101.42 0.001044 1.6718 419.06 2506.0 2086.9 105 120.90 0.001047 1.4184 440.15 2511.9 2071.8 110 143.38 0.001052 1.2093 461.26 2517.7 2056.4 115 169.18 0.001056 1.0358 482.41 2523.3 2040.9 120 198.67 0.001060 0.89121 503.60 2528.9 2025.3 125 232.24 0.001065 0.77003 524.83 2534.3 2009.5 130 270.28 0.001070 0.66800 546.09 2539.5 1993.4 135 313.23 0.001075 0.58173 567.41 2544.7 1977.3 140 361.54 0.001080 0.50845 588.77 2549.6 1960.8 145 415.68 0.001085 0.44596 610.19 2554.4 1944.2 150 476.16 0.001091 0.39245 631.66 2559.1 1927.4 155 543.50 0.001096 0.34646 653.19 2563.5 1910.3 160 618.23 0.001102 0.30678 674.79 2567.8 1893.0 165 700.93 0.001108 0.27243 696.46 2571.9 1875.4 170 792.19 0.001114 0.24259 718.20 2575.7 1857.5 175 892.60 0.001121 0.21658 740.02 2579.4 1839.4 180 1,002.80 0.001127 0.19384 761.92 2582.8 1820.9 185 1,123.50 0.001134 0.17390 783.91 2586.0 1802.1 190 1,255.20 0.001142 0.15636 806.00 2589.0 1783.0 195 1,398.80 0.001149 0.14089 828.18 2591.7 1763.5 200 1,554.90 0.001157 0.12721 850.47 2594.2 1743.7 205 1,724.30 0.001165 0.11508 872.87 2596.4 1723.5 210 1,907.70 0.001173 0.10429 895.39 2598.3 1702.9 215 2,105.80 0.001181 0.094679 918.04 2599.9 1681.9 220 2,319.60 0.001190 0.086092 940.82 2601.2 1660.4 225 2,549.70 0.001199 0.078403 963.74 2602.2 1638.5 230 2,797.10 0.001209 0.071503 986.81 2602.9 1616.1 235 3,062.50 0.001219 0.065298 1010.0 2603.2 1593.2 240 3,346.90 0.001230 0.059705 1033.4 2603.1 1569.7 245 3,651.20 0.001240 0.054654 1057.0 2602.7 1545.7 250 3,976.20 0.001252 0.050083 1080.8 2601.8 1521.0 255 4,322.90 0.001264 0.045938 1104.8 2600.5 1495.7 260 4,692.30 0.001276 0.042173 1129.0 2598.7 1469.7 265 5,085.30 0.001289 0.038746 1153.4 2596.5 1443.1 270 5,503.00 0.001303 0.035621 1178.1 2593.7 1415.6 275 5,946.40 0.001318 0.032766 1203.1 2590.3 1387.2 280 6,416.60 0.001333 0.030153 1228.3 2586.4 1358.1 285 6,914.70 0.001349 0.027756 1253.9 2581.8 1327.9 290 7,441.80 0.001366 0.025555 1279.9 2576.5 1296.6 295 7,999.10 0.001385 0.023529 1306.2 2570.5 1264.3 300 8,587.90 0.001404 0.021660 1332.9 2563.6 1230.7 305 9,209.40 0.001425 0.019933 1360.2 2555.9 1195.7 310 9,865.10 0.001448 0.018335 1387.9 2547.1 1159.2 315 10,556 0.001472 0.016851 1416.3 2537.2 1120.9 320 11,284 0.001499 0.015471 1445.3 2526.0 1080.7 325 12,051 0.001528 0.014183 1475.1 2513.4 1038.3 330 12,858 0.001561 0.012979 1505.8 2499.2 993.4 335 13,707 0.001597 0.011847 1537.6 2483.0 945.4 340 14,601 0.001638 0.010781 1570.6 2464.4 893.8 345 15,541 0.001685 0.009769 1605.3 2443.1 837.8 350 16,529 0.00174 0.008802 1642.1 2418.1 776.0 355 17,570 0.001808 0.007868 1682.0 2388.4 706.4 360 18,666 0.001895 0.006949 1726.3 2351.8 625.5 365 19,821 0.002017 0.006012 1777.8 2303.8 526.0 370 21,044 0.002215 0.004954 1844.1 2230.3 386.2 373.946 22,064 0.003106 0.003106 2015.7 2015.7 0.0
 Enthalpy Entropy kJ/kg kJ/kg•K Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Liquid Vapor Δh Liquid Vapor Δs T, °C Psat, kPa hf hg hfg sf sg sfg 0.01 0.612 0.001 2500.9 2500.9 0.0000 9.1555 9.1555 5 0.873 21.020 2510.1 2489.1 0.0763 9.0248 8.9485 10 1.228 42.021 2519.2 2477.2 0.1511 8.8998 8.7487 15 1.706 62.981 2528.3 2465.3 0.2245 8.7803 8.5558 20 2.339 83.914 2537.4 2453.5 0.2965 8.6660 8.3695 25 3.170 104.83 2546.5 2441.7 0.3672 8.5566 8.1894 30 4.247 125.73 2555.5 2429.8 0.4368 8.4520 8.0153 35 5.629 146.63 2564.5 2417.9 0.5051 8.3517 7.8466 40 7.385 167.53 2573.5 2406.0 0.5724 8.2555 7.6831 45 9.595 188.43 2582.4 2394.0 0.6386 8.1633 7.5247 50 12.352 209.34 2591.3 2382.0 0.7038 8.0748 7.3710 55 15.762 230.26 2600.1 2369.8 0.7680 7.9898 7.2218 60 19.946 251.18 2608.8 2357.6 0.8313 7.9081 7.0768 65 25.042 272.12 2617.5 2345.4 0.8937 7.8296 6.9360 70 31.201 293.07 2626.1 2333.0 0.9551 7.7540 6.7989 75 38.595 314.03 2634.6 2320.6 1.0158 7.6812 6.6654 80 47.414 335.01 2643.0 2308.0 1.0756 7.6111 6.5355 85 57.867 356.01 2651.3 2295.3 1.1346 7.5434 6.4088 90 70.182 377.04 2659.5 2282.5 1.1929 7.4781 6.2852 95 84.608 398.09 2667.6 2269.5 1.2504 7.4151 6.1647 100 101.42 419.17 2675.6 2256.4 1.3072 7.3541 6.0469 105 120.90 440.27 2683.4 2243.1 1.3633 7.2952 5.9319 110 143.38 461.42 2691.1 2229.7 1.4188 7.2381 5.8193 115 169.18 482.59 2698.6 2216.0 1.4737 7.1828 5.7091 120 198.67 503.81 2705.9 2202.1 1.5279 7.1291 5.6012 125 232.24 525.07 2713.1 2188.0 1.5816 7.0770 5.4954 130 270.28 546.38 2720.1 2173.7 1.6346 7.0264 5.3918 135 313.23 567.74 2726.9 2159.2 1.6872 6.9772 5.2900 140 361.54 589.16 2733.4 2144.2 1.7392 6.9293 5.1901 145 415.68 610.64 2739.8 2129.2 1.7907 6.8826 5.0919 150 476.16 632.18 2745.9 2113.7 1.8418 6.8371 4.9953 155 543.50 653.79 2751.8 2098.0 1.8924 6.7926 4.9002 160 618.23 675.47 2757.4 2081.9 1.9426 6.7491 4.8065 165 700.93 697.24 2762.8 2065.6 1.9923 6.7066 4.7143 170 792.19 719.08 2767.9 2048.8 2.0417 6.6650 4.6233 175 892.60 741.02 2772.7 2031.7 2.0906 6.6241 4.5335 180 1,002.80 763.05 2777.2 2014.2 2.1392 6.5840 4.4448 185 1,123.50 785.19 2781.4 1996.2 2.1875 6.5447 4.3572 190 1,255.20 807.43 2785.3 1977.9 2.2355 6.5059 4.2704 195 1,398.80 829.79 2788.8 1959.0 2.2832 6.4678 4.1846 200 1,554.90 852.27 2792.0 1939.7 2.3305 6.4302 4.0997 205 1,724.30 874.88 2794.8 1919.9 2.3777 6.3930 4.0153 210 1,907.70 897.63 2797.3 1899.7 2.4245 6.3563 3.9318 215 2,105.80 920.53 2799.3 1878.8 2.4712 6.3200 3.8488 220 2,319.60 943.58 2800.9 1857.3 2.5177 6.2840 3.7663 225 2,549.70 966.80 2802.1 1835.3 2.5640 6.2483 3.6843 230 2,797.10 990.19 2802.9 1812.7 2.6101 6.2128 3.6027 235 3,062.50 1013.8 2803.2 1789.4 2.6561 6.1775 3.5214 240 3,346.90 1037.6 2803.0 1765.4 2.7020 6.1423 3.4403 245 3,651.20 1061.5 2802.2 1740.7 2.7478 6.1072 3.3594 250 3,976.20 1085.8 2800.9 1715.1 2.7935 6.0721 3.2786 255 4,322.90 1110.2 2799.1 1688.9 2.8392 6.0369 3.1977 260 4,692.30 1135.0 2796.6 1661.6 2.8849 6.0016 3.1167 265 5,085.30 1160.0 2793.5 1633.5 2.9307 5.9661 3.0354 270 5,503.00 1185.3 2789.7 1604.4 2.9765 5.9304 2.9539 275 5,946.40 1210.9 2785.2 1574.3 3.0224 5.8944 2.8720 280 6,416.60 1236.9 2779.9 1543.0 3.0685 5.8579 2.7894 285 6,914.70 1263.2 2773.7 1510.5 3.1147 5.8209 2.7062 290 7,441.80 1290.0 2766.7 1476.7 3.1612 5.7834 2.6222 295 7,999.10 1317.3 2758.7 1441.4 3.2080 5.7451 2.5371 300 8,587.90 1345.0 2749.6 1404.6 3.2552 5.7059 2.4507 305 9,209.40 1373.3 2739.4 1366.1 3.3028 5.6657 2.3629 310 9,865.10 1402.2 2727.9 1325.7 3.3510 5.6244 2.2734 315 10,556 1431.8 2715.1 1283.3 3.3998 5.5816 2.1818 320 11,284 1462.2 2700.6 1238.4 3.4494 5.5372 2.0878 325 12,051 1493.5 2684.3 1190.8 3.5000 5.4908 1.9908 330 12,858 1525.9 2666.0 1140.1 3.5518 5.4422 1.8904 335 13,707 1559.5 2645.4 1085.9 3.6050 5.3906 1.7856 340 14,601 1594.5 2621.8 1027.3 3.6601 5.3356 1.6755 345 15,541 1631.5 2594.9 963.4 3.7176 5.2762 1.5586 350 16,529 1670.9 2563.6 892.7 3.7784 5.2110 1.4326 355 17,570 1713.7 2526.6 812.9 3.8439 5.1380 1.2941 360 18,666 1761.7 2481.5 719.8 3.9167 5.0536 1.1369 365 19,821 1817.8 2422.9 605.1 4.0014 4.9497 0.9483 370 21,044 1890.7 2334.5 443.8 4.1112 4.8012 0.6900 373.946 22,064 2084.3 2084.3 0.0 4.4070 4.4070 0.0000

## Section 10.8 – Saturated water – pressure table

Reference States: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: Specific volume (v) and specific internal energy (u)

Table 2: Specific enthalpy (h) and specific entropy (s)

 Volume Internal Energy m3/kg kJ/kg Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Δu P, kPa Tsat, °C vf vg uf ug ufg 0.6117 0.01 0.001000 205.99 0.0000 2374.9 2374.9 1.0 6.97 0.001000 129.18 29.298 2384.5 2355.2 1.5 13.02 0.001001 87.959 54.681 2392.8 2338.1 2.0 17.50 0.001001 66.987 73.426 2398.9 2325.5 2.5 21.08 0.001002 54.240 88.417 2403.8 2315.4 3.0 24.08 0.001003 45.653 100.970 2407.9 2306.9 4.0 28.96 0.001004 34.791 121.38 2414.5 2293.1 5.0 32.87 0.001005 28.185 137.74 2419.8 2282.1 7.5 40.29 0.001008 19.233 168.74 2429.8 2261.1 10 45.81 0.001010 14.670 191.80 2437.2 2245.4 15 53.97 0.001014 10.020 225.93 2448.0 2222.1 20 60.06 0.001017 7.6480 251.40 2456.0 2204.6 25 64.96 0.001020 6.2032 271.93 2462.4 2190.5 30 69.10 0.001022 5.2284 289.24 2467.7 2178.5 40 75.86 0.001026 3.9930 317.58 2476.3 2158.7 50 81.32 0.001030 3.2400 340.49 2483.2 2142.7 60 85.93 0.001033 2.7317 359.84 2489.0 2129.2 70 89.93 0.001036 2.3648 376.68 2493.9 2117.2 80 93.49 0.001039 2.0871 391.63 2498.2 2106.6 90 96.69 0.001041 1.8694 405.10 2502.1 2097.0 100 99.61 0.001043 1.6939 417.40 2505.6 2088.2 101.325 99.97 0.001043 1.6734 418.95 2506.0 2087.1 125 105.97 0.001048 1.3749 444.22 2513.0 2068.8 150 111.35 0.001053 1.1593 466.97 2519.2 2052.2 175 116.04 0.001057 1.0036 486.82 2524.5 2037.7 200 120.21 0.001061 0.88568 504.49 2529.1 2024.6 225 123.97 0.001064 0.79320 520.47 2533.2 2012.7 250 127.41 0.001067 0.71866 535.08 2536.8 2001.7 275 130.58 0.001070 0.65725 548.56 2540.1 1991.5 300 133.52 0.001073 0.60576 561.10 2543.2 1982.1 325 136.27 0.001076 0.56194 572.84 2545.9 1973.1 350 138.86 0.001079 0.52418 583.88 2548.5 1964.6 375 141.30 0.001081 0.49129 594.32 2550.9 1956.6 400 143.61 0.001084 0.46238 604.22 2553.1 1948.9 450 147.90 0.001088 0.41390 622.65 2557.1 1934.5 500 151.83 0.001093 0.37481 639.54 2560.7 1921.2 550 155.46 0.001097 0.34260 655.16 2563.9 1908.7 600 158.83 0.001101 0.31558 669.72 2566.8 1897.1 650 161.98 0.001104 0.29259 683.36 2569.4 1886.0 700 164.95 0.001108 0.27277 696.23 2571.8 1875.6 750 167.75 0.001111 0.25551 708.40 2574.0 1865.6 800 170.41 0.001115 0.24034 719.97 2576.0 1856.0 850 172.94 0.001118 0.22689 731.00 2577.9 1846.9 900 175.35 0.001121 0.21489 741.55 2579.6 1838.1 950 177.66 0.001124 0.20410 751.67 2581.2 1829.5 1,000 179.88 0.001127 0.19436 761.39 2582.7 1821.3 1,100 184.06 0.001133 0.17745 779.78 2585.5 1805.7 1,200 187.96 0.001139 0.16326 796.96 2587.8 1790.8 1,300 191.60 0.001144 0.15119 813.11 2589.9 1776.8 1,400 195.04 0.001149 0.14078 828.36 2591.8 1763.4 1,500 198.29 0.001154 0.13171 842.83 2593.4 1750.6 1,600 201.37 0.001159 0.12374 856.60 2594.8 1738.2 1,700 204.31 0.001163 0.11667 869.76 2596.1 1726.3 1,800 207.11 0.001168 0.11037 882.37 2597.2 1714.8 1,900 209.80 0.001172 0.10470 894.48 2598.2 1703.7 2,000 212.38 0.001177 0.099585 906.14 2599.1 1693.0 2,250 218.41 0.001187 0.088715 933.57 2600.9 1667.3 2,500 223.95 0.001197 0.079949 958.91 2602.1 1643.2 3,000 233.85 0.001217 0.066664 1004.7 2603.2 1598.5 3,500 242.56 0.001235 0.057058 1045.5 2602.9 1557.4 4,000 250.35 0.001253 0.049776 1082.5 2601.7 1519.2 5,000 263.94 0.001286 0.039446 1148.2 2597.0 1448.8 6,000 275.58 0.001319 0.032448 1206.0 2589.9 1383.9 7,000 285.83 0.001352 0.027378 1258.2 2581.0 1322.8 8,000 295.01 0.001385 0.023526 1306.2 2570.5 1264.3 9,000 303.34 0.001418 0.020490 1351.1 2558.5 1207.4 10,000 311.00 0.001453 0.018030 1393.5 2545.2 1151.7 11,000 318.08 0.001489 0.015990 1434.1 2530.5 1096.4 12,000 324.68 0.001526 0.014264 1473.1 2514.3 1041.2 13,000 330.85 0.001567 0.012780 1511.1 2496.5 985.4 14,000 336.67 0.001610 0.011485 1548.4 2477.1 928.7 15,000 342.16 0.001657 0.010338 1585.3 2455.6 870.3 17,000 352.29 0.001769 0.0083709 1659.9 2405.2 745.3 19,000 361.47 0.001927 0.0066773 1740.5 2339.1 598.6 20,000 365.75 0.002040 0.0058652 1786.4 2295.0 508.6 21,000 369.83 0.002206 0.0049961 1841.2 2233.7 392.5 22,064 373.95 0.003106 0.003106 2015.7 2015.7 0.0
 Enthalpy Entropy kJ/kg kJ/kg•K Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Liquid Vapor Δh Liquid Vapor Δs P, kPa Tsat, °C hf hg hfg sf sg sfg 0.6117 0.01 0.00061178 2500.9 2500.9 0.0000 9.1555 9.1555 1.0 6.97 29.299 2513.7 2484.4 0.10591 8.9749 8.8690 1.5 13.02 54.683 2524.7 2470.0 0.19556 8.8270 8.6314 2.0 17.50 73.428 2532.9 2459.5 0.26056 8.7226 8.4620 2.5 21.08 88.420 2539.4 2451.0 0.31182 8.6420 8.3302 3.0 24.08 100.980 2544.8 2443.8 0.35429 8.5764 8.2221 4.0 28.96 121.39 2553.7 2432.3 0.42239 8.4734 8.0510 5.0 32.87 137.75 2560.7 2423.0 0.47620 8.3938 7.9176 7.5 40.29 168.75 2574.0 2405.3 0.57627 8.2501 7.6738 10 45.81 191.81 2583.9 2392.1 0.64920 8.1488 7.4996 15 53.97 225.94 2598.3 2372.4 0.75486 8.0071 7.2522 20 60.06 251.42 2608.9 2357.5 0.83202 7.9072 7.0752 25 64.96 271.96 2617.4 2345.4 0.89319 7.8302 6.9370 30 69.10 289.27 2624.5 2335.2 0.94407 7.7675 6.8234 40 75.86 317.62 2636.1 2318.5 1.0261 7.6690 6.6429 50 81.32 340.54 2645.2 2304.7 1.0912 7.5930 6.5018 60 85.93 359.91 2652.9 2293.0 1.1454 7.5311 6.3857 70 89.93 376.75 2659.4 2282.7 1.1921 7.4790 6.2869 80 93.49 391.71 2665.2 2273.5 1.2330 7.4339 6.2009 90 96.69 405.20 2670.3 2265.1 1.2696 7.3943 6.1247 100 99.61 417.50 2674.9 2257.4 1.3028 7.3588 6.0560 101.325 99.97 419.06 2675.6 2256.5 1.3069 7.3545 6.0476 125 105.97 444.35 2684.9 2240.6 1.3741 7.2840 5.9099 150 111.35 467.13 2693.1 2226.0 1.4337 7.2230 5.7893 175 116.04 487.00 2700.1 2213.1 1.4850 7.1715 5.6865 200 120.21 504.70 2706.2 2201.5 1.5302 7.1269 5.5967 225 123.97 520.71 2711.6 2190.9 1.5706 7.0876 5.5170 250 127.41 535.34 2716.5 2181.2 1.6072 7.0524 5.4452 275 130.58 548.86 2720.9 2172.0 1.6408 7.0207 5.3799 300 133.52 561.43 2724.9 2163.5 1.6717 6.9916 5.3199 325 136.27 573.19 2728.6 2155.4 1.7005 6.9649 5.2644 350 138.86 584.26 2732.0 2147.7 1.7274 6.9401 5.2127 375 141.30 594.73 2735.1 2140.4 1.7526 6.9171 5.1645 400 143.61 604.65 2738.1 2133.5 1.7765 6.8955 5.1190 450 147.90 623.14 2743.4 2120.3 1.8205 6.8560 5.0355 500 151.83 640.09 2748.1 2108.0 1.8604 6.8207 4.9603 550 155.46 655.76 2752.3 2096.5 1.8970 6.7886 4.8916 600 158.83 670.38 2756.1 2085.7 1.9308 6.7592 4.8284 650 161.98 684.08 2759.6 2075.5 1.9623 6.7322 4.7699 700 164.95 697.00 2762.8 2065.8 1.9918 6.7071 4.7153 750 167.75 709.24 2765.6 2056.4 2.0195 6.6836 4.6641 800 170.41 720.86 2768.3 2047.4 2.0457 6.6616 4.6159 850 172.94 731.95 2770.8 2038.9 2.0705 6.6409 4.5704 900 175.35 742.56 2773.0 2030.4 2.0940 6.6213 4.5273 950 177.66 752.74 2775.1 2022.4 2.1165 6.6027 4.4862 1,000 179.88 762.52 2777.1 2014.6 2.1381 6.5850 4.4469 1,100 184.06 781.03 2780.6 1999.6 2.1785 6.5520 4.3735 1,200 187.96 798.33 2783.7 1985.4 2.2159 6.5217 4.3058 1,300 191.60 814.60 2786.5 1971.9 2.2508 6.4936 4.2428 1,400 195.04 829.97 2788.8 1958.8 2.2835 6.4675 4.1840 1,500 198.29 844.56 2791.0 1946.4 2.3143 6.4430 4.1287 1,600 201.37 858.46 2792.8 1934.3 2.3435 6.4199 4.0764 1,700 204.31 871.74 2794.5 1922.8 2.3711 6.3981 4.0270 1,800 207.11 884.47 2795.9 1911.4 2.3975 6.3775 3.9800 1,900 209.80 896.71 2797.2 1900.5 2.4227 6.3578 3.9351 2,000 212.38 908.50 2798.3 1889.8 2.4468 6.3390 3.8922 2,250 218.41 936.24 2800.5 1864.3 2.5029 6.2954 3.7925 2,500 223.95 961.91 2801.9 1840.0 2.5543 6.2558 3.7015 3,000 233.85 1008.3 2803.2 1794.9 2.6455 6.1856 3.5401 3,500 242.56 1049.8 2802.6 1752.8 2.7254 6.1243 3.3989 4,000 250.35 1087.5 2800.8 1713.3 2.7968 6.0696 3.2728 5,000 263.94 1154.6 2794.2 1639.6 2.9210 5.9737 3.0527 6,000 275.58 1213.9 2784.6 1570.7 3.0278 5.8901 2.8623 7,000 285.83 1267.7 2772.6 1504.9 3.1224 5.8148 2.6924 8,000 295.01 1317.3 2758.7 1441.4 3.2081 5.7450 2.5369 9,000 303.34 1363.9 2742.9 1379.0 3.2870 5.6791 2.3921 10,000 311.00 1408.1 2725.5 1317.4 3.3606 5.6160 2.2554 11,000 318.08 1450.4 2706.3 1255.9 3.4303 5.5545 2.1242 12,000 324.68 1491.5 2685.4 1193.9 3.4967 5.4939 1.9972 13,000 330.85 1531.5 2662.7 1131.2 3.5608 5.4336 1.8728 14,000 336.67 1571.0 2637.9 1066.9 3.6232 5.3727 1.7495 15,000 342.16 1610.2 2610.7 1000.5 3.6846 5.3106 1.6260 17,000 352.29 1690.0 2547.5 857.5 3.8077 5.1787 1.3710 19,000 361.47 1777.2 2466.0 688.8 3.9401 5.0256 1.0855 20,000 365.75 1827.2 2412.3 585.1 4.0156 4.9314 0.9158 21,000 369.83 1887.6 2338.6 451.0 4.1064 4.8079 0.7015 22,064 373.95 2084.3 2084.3 0.0 4.4070 4.4070 0.0000

## Section 10.9 – Superheated vapor water/steam table

Reference states: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: P = 10 kPa to 800 kPa

Table 2: P = 1000 kPa to 3500 kPa

Table 3: P = 4000 kPa to 11000 kPa

Table 4: P = 12000 kPa to 20000 kPa

 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 10 kPa Tsat = 45.806°C Sat. 14.670 2437.2 2583.9 8.1488 50 14.867 2443.3 2592.0 8.1741 100 17.196 2515.5 2687.5 8.4489 150 19.513 2587.9 2783.0 8.6892 200 21.826 2661.3 2879.6 8.9049 250 24.136 2736.1 2977.4 9.1015 300 26.446 2812.3 3076.7 9.2827 400 31.063 2969.3 3279.9 9.6094 500 35.680 3132.9 3489.7 9.8998 600 40.296 3303.3 3706.3 10.1630 700 44.911 3480.8 3929.9 10.4060 800 49.527 3665.3 4160.6 10.6310 900 54.142 3856.9 4398.3 10.8430 1000 58.758 4055.2 4642.8 11.0430 P = 50kPa Tsat = 81.317°C Sat. 3.2400 2483.2 2645.2 7.5930 50 100 3.4187 2511.5 2682.4 7.6953 150 3.8897 2585.7 2780.2 7.9413 200 4.3562 2660.0 2877.8 8.1592 250 4.8206 2735.1 2976.1 8.3568 300 5.2840 2811.6 3075.8 8.5386 400 6.2094 2968.9 3279.3 8.8659 500 7.1338 3132.6 3489.3 9.1566 600 8.0576 3303.1 3706.0 9.4201 700 8.9812 3480.6 3929.7 9.6625 800 9.9047 3665.2 4160.4 9.8882 900 10.8280 3856.8 4398.2 10.1000 1000 11.7510 4055.1 4642.7 10.3000 P = 100 kPa Tsat = 99.606°C Sat. 1.6939 2505.6 2674.9 7.3588 50 100 1.6959 2506.2 2675.8 7.3610 150 1.9367 2582.9 2776.6 7.6148 200 2.1724 2658.2 2875.5 7.8356 250 2.4062 2733.9 2974.5 8.0346 300 2.6388 2810.6 3074.5 8.2172 400 3.1027 2968.3 3278.6 8.5452 500 3.5655 3132.2 3488.7 8.8361 600 4.0279 3302.8 3705.6 9.0998 700 4.4900 3480.4 3929.4 9.3424 800 4.9519 3665.0 4160.2 9.5681 900 5.4137 3856.6 4398.0 9.7800 1000 5.8754 4055.0 4642.6 9.9800 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 200 kPa Tsat = 120.21°C Sat. 0.88568 2529.1 2706.2 7.1269 150 0.95986 2577.1 2769.1 7.2810 200 1.08050 2654.6 2870.7 7.5081 250 1.19890 2731.4 2971.2 7.7100 300 1.31620 2808.8 3072.1 7.8941 400 1.54930 2967.1 3277.0 8.2236 500 1.78140 3131.4 3487.7 8.5152 600 2.01300 3302.2 3704.8 8.7792 700 2.24430 3479.9 3928.8 9.0220 800 2.47550 3664.7 4159.8 9.2479 900 2.70660 3856.3 4397.6 9.4598 1000 2.93750 4054.8 4642.3 9.6599 P = 300 kPa Tsat = 133.52°C Sat. 0.60576 2543.2 2724.9 6.9916 150 0.63401 2571.0 2761.2 7.0791 200 0.71642 2651.0 2865.9 7.3131 250 0.79644 2728.9 2967.9 7.5180 300 0.87534 2807.0 3069.6 7.7037 400 1.03150 2966.0 3275.5 8.0347 500 1.18670 3130.6 3486.6 8.3271 600 1.34140 3301.6 3704.0 8.5914 700 1.49580 3479.5 3928.2 8.8344 800 1.65000 3664.3 4159.3 9.0604 900 1.80420 3856.0 4397.3 9.2724 1000 1.95820 4054.5 4642.0 9.4726 P = 400 kPa Tsat = 143.61°C Sat. 0.46238 2553.1 2738.1 6.8955 150 0.47088 2564.4 2752.8 6.9306 200 0.53433 2647.2 2860.9 7.1723 250 0.59520 2726.4 2964.5 7.3804 300 0.65489 2805.1 3067.1 7.5677 400 0.77264 2964.9 3273.9 7.9002 500 0.88936 3129.8 3485.5 8.1933 600 1.00560 3301.0 3703.2 8.4580 700 1.12150 3479.0 3927.6 8.7012 800 1.23730 3663.9 4158.8 8.9273 900 1.35300 3855.7 4396.9 9.1394 1000 1.46860 4054.3 4641.7 9.3396 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 500 kPa Tsat = 151.83°C Sat. 0.37481 2560.7 2748.1 6.8207 200 0.42503 2643.3 2855.8 7.0610 250 0.47443 2723.8 2961.0 7.2724 300 0.52261 2803.2 3064.6 7.4614 350 0.57015 2883.0 3168.1 7.6346 400 0.61730 2963.7 3272.3 7.7955 500 0.71094 3129.0 3484.5 8.0892 600 0.80409 3300.4 3702.5 8.3543 700 0.89696 3478.5 3927.0 8.5977 800 0.98966 3663.6 4158.4 8.8240 900 1.08230 3855.4 4396.6 9.0362 1000 1.17480 4054.0 4641.4 9.2364 P = 600 kPa Tsat = 158.83°C Sat. 0.31558 2566.8 2756.1 6.7592 200 0.35212 2639.3 2850.6 6.9683 250 0.39390 2721.2 2957.6 7.1832 300 0.43442 2801.4 3062.0 7.3740 350 0.47427 2881.6 3166.1 7.5481 400 0.51374 2962.5 3270.8 7.7097 500 0.59200 3128.2 3483.4 8.0041 600 0.66976 3299.8 3701.7 8.2695 700 0.74725 3478.1 3926.4 8.5131 800 0.82457 3663.2 4157.9 8.7395 900 0.90178 3855.1 4396.2 8.9518 1000 0.97893 4053.7 4641.1 9.1521 P = 800 kPa Tsat = 170.41°C Sat. 0.24034 2576.0 2768.3 6.6616 200 0.26088 2631.0 2839.7 6.8176 250 0.29320 2715.9 2950.4 7.0401 300 0.32416 2797.5 3056.9 7.2345 350 0.35442 2878.6 3162.2 7.4106 400 0.38428 2960.2 3267.6 7.5734 500 0.44332 3126.6 3481.3 7.8692 600 0.50185 3298.7 3700.1 8.1354 700 0.56011 3477.2 3925.3 8.3794 800 0.61820 3662.4 4157.0 8.6061 900 0.67619 3854.5 4395.5 8.8185 1000 0.73411 4053.2 4640.5 9.0189
 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 1000 kPa Tsat = 179.88°C Sat. 0.19436 2582.7 2777.1 6.5850 200 0.20602 2622.2 2828.3 6.6955 250 0.23275 2710.4 2943.1 6.9265 300 0.25799 2793.6 3051.6 7.1246 350 0.28250 2875.7 3158.2 7.3029 400 0.30661 2957.9 3264.5 7.4669 500 0.35411 3125.0 3479.1 7.7641 600 0.40111 3297.5 3698.6 8.0310 700 0.44783 3476.2 3924.1 8.2755 800 0.49438 3661.7 4156.1 8.5024 900 0.54083 3853.9 4394.8 8.7150 1000 0.58721 4052.7 4639.9 8.9155 P = 1200 kPa Tsat = 187.96°C Sat. 0.16326 2587.8 2783.7 6.5217 200 0.16934 2612.9 2816.1 6.5909 250 0.19241 2704.7 2935.6 6.8313 300 0.21386 2789.7 3046.3 7.0335 350 0.23455 2872.7 3154.2 7.2139 400 0.25482 2955.5 3261.3 7.3793 500 0.29464 3123.4 3476.9 7.6779 600 0.33394 3296.3 3697.0 7.9455 700 0.37297 3475.3 3922.9 8.1904 800 0.41184 3661.0 4155.2 8.4176 900 0.45059 3853.3 4394.0 8.6303 1000 0.48928 4052.2 4639.4 8.8310 P = 1400 kPa Tsat = 195.04°C Sat. 0.14078 2591.8 2788.8 6.4675 200 0.14303 2602.7 2803.0 6.4975 250 0.16356 2698.9 2927.9 6.7488 300 0.18232 2785.7 3040.9 6.9552 350 0.20029 2869.7 3150.1 7.1379 400 0.21782 2953.1 3258.1 7.3046 500 0.25216 3121.8 3474.8 7.6047 600 0.28597 3295.1 3695.4 7.8730 700 0.31951 3474.4 3921.7 8.1183 800 0.35287 3660.2 4154.3 8.3457 900 0.38614 3852.7 4393.3 8.5587 1000 0.41933 4051.7 4638.8 8.7594 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 1600 kPa Tsat = 201.37°C Sat. 0.12374 2594.8 2792.8 6.4199 225 0.13293 2645.1 2857.8 6.5537 250 0.14190 2692.9 2919.9 6.6753 300 0.15866 2781.6 3035.4 6.8863 350 0.17459 2866.6 3146.0 7.0713 400 0.19007 2950.7 3254.9 7.2394 500 0.22029 3120.1 3472.6 7.5409 600 0.24999 3293.9 3693.9 7.8100 700 0.27940 3473.5 3920.5 8.0557 800 0.30865 3659.5 4153.3 8.2834 900 0.33780 3852.1 4392.6 8.4965 1000 0.36687 4051.2 4638.2 8.6974 P = 1800 kPa Tsat = 207.11°C Sat. 0.11037 2597.2 2795.9 6.3775 225 0.11678 2637.0 2847.2 6.4824 250 0.12502 2686.7 2911.7 6.6087 300 0.14025 2777.4 3029.9 6.8246 350 0.15460 2863.6 3141.8 7.0120 400 0.16849 2948.3 3251.6 7.1814 500 0.19551 3118.5 3470.4 7.4845 600 0.22200 3292.7 3692.3 7.7543 700 0.24821 3472.6 3919.4 8.0004 800 0.27426 3658.8 4152.4 8.2284 900 0.30020 3851.5 4391.9 8.4416 1000 0.32606 4050.7 4637.6 8.6426 P = 2000 kPa Tsat = 212.38°C Sat. 0.09959 2599.1 2798.3 6.3390 225 0.10381 2628.5 2836.1 6.4160 250 0.11150 2680.2 2903.2 6.5475 300 0.12551 2773.2 3024.2 6.7684 350 0.13860 2860.5 3137.7 6.9583 400 0.15121 2945.9 3248.3 7.1292 500 0.17568 3116.9 3468.2 7.4337 600 0.19961 3291.5 3690.7 7.7043 700 0.22326 3471.6 3918.2 7.9509 800 0.24674 3658.0 4151.5 8.1790 900 0.27012 3850.9 4391.1 8.3925 1000 0.29342 4050.2 4637.0 8.5936 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 2500 kPa Tsat = 223.95°C Sat. 0.07995 2602.1 2801.9 6.2558 225 0.08026 2604.8 2805.5 6.2629 250 0.08705 2663.3 2880.9 6.4107 300 0.09894 2762.2 3009.6 6.6459 350 0.10979 2852.5 3127.0 6.8424 400 0.12012 2939.8 3240.1 7.0170 500 0.13999 3112.8 3462.7 7.3254 600 0.15931 3288.5 3686.8 7.5979 700 0.17835 3469.3 3915.2 7.8455 800 0.19721 3656.2 4149.2 8.0743 900 0.21597 3849.4 4389.3 8.2882 1000 0.23466 4048.9 4635.6 8.4896 P = 3000 kPa Tsat= 233.85°C Sat. 0.06666 2603.2 2803.2 6.1856 225 250 0.07063 2644.7 2856.5 6.2893 300 0.08118 2750.8 2994.3 6.5412 350 0.09056 2844.4 3116.1 6.7449 400 0.09938 2933.5 3231.7 6.9234 500 0.11620 3108.6 3457.2 7.2359 600 0.13245 3285.5 3682.8 7.5103 700 0.14841 3467.0 3912.2 7.7590 800 0.16420 3654.3 4146.9 7.9885 900 0.17988 3847.9 4387.5 8.2028 1000 0.19549 4047.7 4634.1 8.4045 P = 3500 kPa Tsat = 242.56°C Sat. 0.05706 2602.9 2802.6 6.1243 225 250 0.05876 2624.0 2829.7 6.1764 300 0.06845 2738.8 2978.4 6.4484 350 0.07680 2836.0 3104.8 6.6601 400 0.08456 2927.2 3223.2 6.8427 500 0.09920 3104.5 3451.6 7.1593 600 0.11325 3282.5 3678.9 7.4356 700 0.12702 3464.7 3909.3 7.6854 800 0.14061 3652.5 4144.6 7.9156 900 0.15410 3846.4 4385.7 8.1303 1000 0.16751 4046.4 4632.7 8.3324
 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 4000 kPa Tsat = 250.35°C Sat. 0.04978 2601.7 2800.8 6.0696 275 0.05461 2668.9 2887.3 6.2312 300 0.05887 2726.2 2961.7 6.3639 350 0.06647 2827.4 3093.3 6.5843 400 0.07343 2920.7 3214.5 6.7714 450 0.08004 3011.0 3331.2 6.9386 500 0.08644 3100.3 3446.0 7.0922 600 0.09886 3279.4 3674.9 7.3705 700 0.11098 3462.4 3906.3 7.6214 800 0.12292 3650.6 4142.3 7.8523 900 0.13476 3844.8 4383.9 8.0674 1000 0.14652 4045.1 4631.2 8.2697 P = 4500 kPa Tsat = 257.44°C Sat. 0.04406 2599.7 2797.9 6.0197 275 0.04733 2651.3 2864.3 6.1429 300 0.05138 2713.0 2944.2 6.2854 350 0.05842 2818.6 3081.5 6.5153 400 0.06477 2914.2 3205.6 6.7070 450 0.07076 3005.8 3324.2 6.8770 500 0.07652 3096.0 3440.4 7.0323 600 0.08766 3276.4 3670.9 7.3127 700 0.09850 3460.0 3903.3 7.5646 800 0.10916 3648.8 4140.0 7.7962 900 0.11972 3843.3 4382.1 8.0118 1000 0.13020 4043.9 4629.8 8.2144 P = 5000 kPa Tsat= 263.94°C Sat. 0.03945 2597.0 2794.2 5.9737 275 0.04144 2632.3 2839.5 6.0571 300 0.04535 2699.0 2925.7 6.2110 350 0.05197 2809.5 3069.3 6.4516 400 0.05784 2907.5 3196.7 6.6483 450 0.06332 3000.6 3317.2 6.8210 500 0.06858 3091.7 3434.7 6.9781 600 0.07870 3273.3 3666.8 7.2605 700 0.08852 3457.7 3900.3 7.5136 800 0.09816 3646.9 4137.7 7.7458 900 0.10769 3841.8 4380.2 7.9618 1000 0.11715 4042.6 4628.3 8.1648 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 6000 kPa Tsat = 227.58°C Sat. 0.032448 2589.9 2784.6 5.8901 300 0.036189 2668.4 2885.5 6.0703 350 0.042251 2790.4 3043.9 6.3357 400 0.047419 2893.7 3178.2 6.5432 450 0.052166 2989.9 3302.9 6.7219 500 0.056671 3083.1 3423.1 6.8826 550 0.061021 3175.2 3541.3 7.0307 600 0.065265 3267.2 3658.7 7.1693 700 0.073545 3453.0 3894.3 7.4246 800 0.081648 3643.2 4133.1 7.6582 900 0.089641 3838.8 4376.6 7.8751 1000 0.097560 4040.1 4625.4 8.0786 P = 7000 kPa Tsat = 285.83°C Sat. 0.027378 2581.0 2772.6 5.8148 300 0.029492 2633.5 2839.9 5.9337 350 0.035262 2770.1 3016.9 6.2304 400 0.039958 2879.5 3159.2 6.4502 450 0.044187 2979.0 3288.3 6.6353 500 0.048157 3074.3 3411.4 6.8000 550 0.051966 3167.9 3531.6 6.9506 600 0.055665 3260.9 3650.6 7.0910 700 0.062850 3448.3 3888.2 7.3486 800 0.069855 3639.5 4128.4 7.5836 900 0.076750 3835.7 4373.0 7.8014 1000 0.083571 4037.5 4622.5 8.0055 P = 8000 kPa Tsat = 295.01°C Sat. 0.023526 2570.5 2758.7 5.7450 300 0.024279 2592.3 2786.5 5.7937 350 0.029975 2748.3 2988.1 6.1321 400 0.034344 2864.6 3139.4 6.3658 450 0.038194 2967.8 3273.3 6.5579 500 0.041767 3065.4 3399.5 6.7266 550 0.045172 3160.5 3521.8 6.8799 600 0.048463 3254.7 3642.4 7.0221 700 0.054828 3443.6 3882.2 7.2821 800 0.061011 3635.7 4123.8 7.5184 900 0.067082 3832.6 4369.3 7.7371 1000 0.073079 4035.0 4619.6 7.9419 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 9000 kPa Tsat= 303.34°C Sat. 0.020490 2558.5 2742.9 5.6791 325 0.023284 2647.6 2857.1 5.8738 350 0.025816 2724.9 2957.3 6.0380 400 0.029960 2849.2 3118.8 6.2876 450 0.033524 2956.3 3258.0 6.4872 500 0.036793 3056.3 3387.4 6.6603 550 0.039885 3153.0 3512.0 6.8164 600 0.042861 3248.4 3634.1 6.9605 700 0.048589 3438.8 3876.1 7.2229 800 0.054132 3632.0 4119.1 7.4606 900 0.059562 3829.6 4365.7 7.6802 1000 0.064918 4032.4 4616.7 7.8855 P = 10000 kPa Tsat = 311.00°C Sat. 0.018030 2545.2 2725.5 5.6160 325 0.019877 2611.6 2810.3 5.7596 350 0.022440 2699.6 2924.0 5.9459 400 0.026436 2833.1 3097.4 6.2141 450 0.029782 2944.5 3242.3 6.4219 500 0.032811 3047.0 3375.1 6.5995 550 0.035654 3145.4 3502.0 6.7585 600 0.038378 3242.0 3625.8 6.9045 700 0.043597 3434.0 3870.0 7.1693 800 0.048629 3628.2 4114.5 7.4085 900 0.053547 3826.5 4362.0 7.6290 1000 0.058390 4029.9 4613.8 7.8349 P = 11000 kPa Tsat= 318.08°C Sat. 0.015990 2530.5 2706.3 5.5545 325 0.016953 2569.2 2755.7 5.6375 350 0.019625 2672.0 2887.9 5.8542 400 0.023537 2816.3 3075.2 6.1440 450 0.026713 2932.4 3226.3 6.3607 500 0.029549 3037.6 3362.7 6.5431 550 0.032191 3137.8 3491.9 6.7050 600 0.034709 3235.6 3617.4 6.8531 700 0.039513 3429.2 3863.9 7.1204 800 0.044126 3624.4 4109.8 7.3610 900 0.048625 3823.5 4358.3 7.5824 1000 0.053049 4027.3 4610.9 7.7889
 T v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg•K P = 12000 kPa Tsat = 224.68°C Sat. 0.014264 2514.3 2685.4 5.4939 350 0.017221 2641.4 2848.1 5.7609 400 0.021106 2798.7 3052.0 6.0764 450 0.024149 2920.0 3209.8 6.3028 500 0.026828 3028.1 3350.0 6.4903 550 0.029304 3130.0 3481.7 6.6553 600 0.031651 3229.1 3608.9 6.8054 650 0.033912 3326.9 3733.8 6.9446 700 0.036109 3424.4 3857.7 7.0753 800 0.040375 3620.6 4105.1 7.3173 900 0.044524 3820.4 4354.7 7.5396 1000 0.048599 4024.8 4608.0 7.7467 P = 13000 kPa Tsat= 330.85°C Sat. 0.012780 2496.5 2662.7 5.4336 350 0.015119 2607.2 2803.7 5.6638 400 0.019033 2780.3 3027.7 6.0106 450 0.021974 2907.3 3193.0 6.2476 500 0.024523 3018.3 3337.1 6.4405 550 0.026859 3122.2 3471.3 6.6087 600 0.029063 3222.5 3600.4 6.7609 650 0.031178 3321.3 3726.6 6.9016 700 0.033229 3419.6 3851.5 7.0333 800 0.037200 3616.9 4100.4 7.2768 900 0.041054 3817.3 4351.0 7.5000 1000 0.044833 4022.2 4605.0 7.7078 P = 14000 kPa Tsat = 336.67°C Sat. 0.011485 2477.1 2637.9 5.3727 350 0.013232 2567.8 2753.1 5.5598 400 0.017240 2761.0 3002.3 5.9459 450 0.020104 2894.2 3175.7 6.1946 500 0.022544 3008.4 3324.1 6.3932 550 0.024763 3114.2 3460.9 6.5648 600 0.026845 3216.0 3591.8 6.7191 650 0.028835 3315.7 3719.4 6.8612 700 0.030761 3414.7 3845.3 6.9941 800 0.034479 3613.1 4095.8 7.2391 900 0.038080 3814.2 4347.4 7.4632 1000 0.041605 4019.7 4602.1 7.6716 P = 15000 kPa Tsat = 342.16°C Sat. 0.010338 2455.6 2610.7 5.3106 375 0.013902 2650.4 2858.9 5.7050 400 0.015671 2740.6 2975.7 5.8819 450 0.018477 2880.7 3157.9 6.1434 500 0.020827 2998.4 3310.8 6.3480 550 0.022945 3106.2 3450.4 6.5230 600 0.024921 3209.3 3583.1 6.6796 650 0.026804 3310.1 3712.1 6.8233 700 0.028621 3409.8 3839.1 6.9572 800 0.032121 3609.2 4091.1 7.2037 900 0.035503 3811.2 4343.7 7.4288 1000 0.038808 4017.1 4599.2 7.6378 P =17000 kPa Tsat= 352.29°C Sat. 0.0083709 2405.2 2547.5 5.1787 375 0.011175 2586.0 2776.0 5.5385 400 0.013038 2696.2 2917.9 5.7536 450 0.015784 2852.7 3121.0 6.0451 500 0.017994 2977.7 3283.6 6.2628 550 0.019948 3089.9 3429.0 6.4451 600 0.021752 3195.9 3565.7 6.6063 650 0.023459 3298.7 3697.5 6.7531 700 0.025097 3400.0 3826.6 6.8894 800 0.028237 3601.6 4081.6 7.1388 900 0.031258 3805.0 4336.4 7.3658 1000 0.034202 4012.0 4593.4 7.5760 P = 20000 kPa Tsat = 365.75°C Sat. 0.005865 2295.0 2412.3 4.9314 375 0.007676 2449.1 2602.6 5.2275 400 0.009950 2617.9 2816.9 5.5525 450 0.012721 2807.2 3061.7 5.9043 500 0.014793 2945.3 3241.2 6.1446 550 0.016571 3064.7 3396.1 6.3389 600 0.018185 3175.3 3539.0 6.5075 650 0.019695 3281.4 3675.3 6.6593 700 0.021133 3385.1 3807.8 6.7990 800 0.023869 3590.1 4067.5 7.0531 900 0.026483 3795.7 4325.4 7.2829 1000 0.029020 4004.3 4584.7 7.4950

## Section 10.10 – Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure, or saturation pressure, was defined in another section. The Antoine equation is a common equation for vapor pressure as a function of temperature. Three constants are needed to calculate vapor pressures from the Antoine equations, which have been experimentally measured for many components. The Antoine equation is:

log10 Psat = A − BT+C

where A, B, C are tabulated below for many components. Psat has units of mmHg, and T has units of oC.

Table 10.10.1: Vapor Pressure.
Component A B C Low T High T
Acetaldehyde 7.31377 1175.27 244.272 -105.0 192.9
Acetic Acid 7.27642 1326.65 183.913 -42.8 318.8
Acetic Acid 7.18807 1516.7 225 0 36
Acetic Anhydride 7.14948 1444.718 199.817 62.8 139.4
Acetone 7.31414 1315.67 240.479 -94.7 235.1
Acetylene 7.31465 790.209 262.859 -80.8 35.2
Acrylic Acid 5.65204 648.629 154.683 20 70
Ammonia 7.55466 1013.78 248.825 -77.5 132.5
Ammonium Nitrate 7.47687 1118.72 245.150 -70.0 80.0
Aniline 7.3201 1668.15 193.636 -6.02 425.9
Benzaldehyde 7.25411 1734.80 217.931 -26.0 421.9
Benzene 6.81404 1090.43 197.146 -40.0 288.9
Benzoic Acid 7.41844 1824.74 152.886 122.4 477.9
Benzyl Alcohol 7.92338 2060.53 203.928 -15.3 403.85
Bromine 7.27906 1321.90 241.801 -7.3 311.0
1,2-Butadiene 7.06482 1097.26 251.400 -132.0 178.9
1,3-Butadiene 7.02238 998.751 245.563 -108.9 152.2
n-Butane 7.00961 1022.48 248.145 -138.3 152.0
Isobutane 6.93388 953.920 247.077 -159.6 135.0
i-Butane 6.78866 899.617 541.942 -85.1 -11.6
1-Butanol 7.36366 1305.198 173.427 89.2 125.7
2-Butanol 7.20131 1157 168.279 72.4 107.1
1-Butene 7.03420 1013.60 250.929 -185.4 146.4
Butyric Acid 8.71019 2433.014 255.189 20 150
Calcium Chloride 9.22000 13570.00 273.150 836.9 1007.85
Carbon 9.41205 27489.0 281.969 2985.95 4125.95
Carbon Dioxide 7.58828 861.820 271.883 -56.57 31.04
Carbon Disulfide 7.21790 1303.79 254.394 -111.6 278.2
Carbon Monoxide 6.72527 295.228 268.243 -205.0 -140.2
Carbon Tetrachloride 7.01144 1278.54 232.888 -22.8 283.2
Chlorine 7.06306 906.703 250.828 -101.0 144.0
Chlorobenzene 7.18342 1574.53 234.229 -45.2 359.2
Chloroform 7.1148 1232.79 230.213 -63.5 263.3
Cyclohexane 6.84941 1206.001 218.815 -85.6 280.7
Cyclohexanol 6.2553 912.866 109.126 93.7 160.7
Cyclopentane 7.04267 1202.53 239.690 -93.8 238.6
n-Decane 7.21745 1693.93 216.459 -29.7 354.3
1-Decene 6.95433 1497.527 197.056 86.8 171.6
1,1-Dichloroethane 6.9772 1174.022 229.06 -38.8 17.6
1,1-Dichloroethane 7.0253 1271.254 222.927 -30.8 99.4
Dichloromethane 7.40916 1325.938 252.616 -40 40
Diethyl Ether 7.04631 1112.55 232.657 -116.3 193.6
Diethyl Ketone 7.02529 1310.281 214.192 56.5 111.3
Diethylene Glycol 7.63666 1939.359 162.714 130 243
Dimethyl Ether 6.97603 889.264 241.957 -78.2 -24.9
Dimethylamine 7.08212 960.242 221.667 -71.8 6.9
N,N-Dimethylformamide 6.92796 1400.869 196.434 30 90
1,4-Dioxane 7.43155 1554.679 240.337 20 105
Ethane 6.95335 699.106 260.264 -182.8 32.27
Ethanol 8.13484 1662.48 238.131 -141.1 243.1
Ethanolamine 7.4568 1577.67 173.368 65.4 170.9
Ethyl Acetate 7.25963 1338.46 228.608 -83.6 250.2
Ethyl Chloride 7.13047 1097.60 246.009 -136.4 187.2
Ethyl Benzene 7.15610 1559.55 228.582 -94.95 344.0
Ethylene 6.96636 649.806 262.730 -169.1 9.21
Ethylene Glycol 9.69941 3147.10 264.246 -13.0 371.9
Ethylene Oxide 8.69016 2005.779 334.765 0.3 31.8
1,2-Ethylenediamine 7.16871 1336.235 194.366 26.5 117.4
Formaldehyde 7.46432 1078.39 254.377 -92 134.9
Formic Acid 6.97459 1165.08 184.037 -56.0 314.9
Glycerol 7.01621 1448.81 62.4928 96.0 576.9
Helium 5.27120 13.5171 274.585 -271.4 -268.0
n-Heptane 7.04605 1341.89 223.733 -90.9 267.1
i-Heptane 6.87689 1238.122 219.783 18.5 90.9
1-Heptene 6.91381 1265.12 220.051 21.6 94.5
n-Hexane 6.985950 1216.92 227.451 -95.3 234.3
i-Hexane 6.86839 1151.401 228.477 12.8 61.1
1-Hexene 6.8688 1154.646 226.04466 15.9 64.3
Hydrogen 6.14858 80.9480 277.532 -259.2 -240.0
Hydrogen Bromide 6.93857 704.443 240.302 -88.0 90.0
Hydrogen Chloride 7.25303 764.837 259.931 -114.2 51.5
Hydrogen Cyanide 8.08422 1655.87 292.228 -13.3 183.5
Hydrogen Fluoride 8.12392 1680.65 301.024 -83.4 188.0
Hydrogen Sulfide 7.11958 802.227 249.610 -85.5 100.4
Iodine 7.10736 1556.97 183.969 -31.2 546.0
Iron 8.37930 16213.5 88.5202 1435.0 2860.2
Lead 7.46345 9131.84 243.703 434.9 1749.0
Lead Oxide 9.24183 10820.3 227.032 943.0 1474.0
Magnesium 7.70612 6302.91 216.220 243.9 1090.0
Magnesium Chloride 7.13801 6698.78 161.047 778.0 1412.0
Magnesium Oxide 6.92276 13862.2 -170.464 2831.9 5676.9
Mercury 7.89458 3147.61 271.104 -38.8 1461.9
Methane 6.84566 435.621 271.361 -182.5 -82.6
Methanol 8.01926 1582.91 239.096 -97.9 239.4
Methyl Acetate 7.28036 1276.29 233.155 -98.0 233.7
Methyl Bromide 7.09084 1046.066 244.914 -70 3.6
Methyl Chloride 6.99771 870.170 235.586 -140.2 143.1
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 7.20103 1325.15 227.039 -85.0 262.4
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 6.67272 1168.408 191.944 21.7 116.2
Methyl Methacrylate 8.40919 2050.467 274.369 39.2 89.2
Methylamine 7.3369 1025.40 233.286 -93.5 156.9
Methylcyclohexane 6.82827 1273.673 221.723 25.6 101.8
Naphthalene 6.89116 1551.48 168.879 3.2 475.3
Nickel 8.76372 17953.7 138.854 1480.0 3200.0
Nitric Acid 7.56453 1431.75 222.686 -41.6 103.0
Nitrobenzene 7.53814 2018.37 22.575 5.76 445.9
Nitromethane 7.28166 1446.9377 227.6 55.7 136.4
Nitrogen 6.72531 285.573 270.087 -210.0 -147.1
Nitrogen Dioxide 9.74325 2289.63 312.647 -11.2 158.2
Nitric Oxide 7.70299 473.030 249.866 -163.7 -93.0
Nitrogen Pentoxide 11.9325 2617.65 256.190 -36.8 33.0
Nitrogen Tetraoxide 4.09407 97.8287 59.4731 -11.3 47.5
Nitrous Oxide 6.81488 550.604 228.438 -90.9 36.4
n-Nonane 7.18840 1607.74 222.414 -53.5 322.5
1-Nonene 6.95777 1437.862 205.814 66.6 147.9
n-Octane 7.14462 1498.96 225.874 -56.8 295.7
i-Octane 6.88814 1319.529 211.625 41.7 118.5
1-Octane 6.93637 1355.779 213.022 44.9 122.2
Oxalic Acid 8.20735 2370.64 149.212 189.5 530.9
Oxygen 6.83706 339.209 268.702 -218.8 -118.6
n-Pentane 7.00877 1134.15 238.678 -129.7 196.5
Isopentane 7.03015 1140.15 247.012 -159.9 187.3
i-Pentane 6.73457 992.019 229.564 16.3 28.6
1-Pentanol 7.18246 1287.625 161.33 74.7 156
1-Pentene 7.02741 1132.42 243.136 -163.2 191.6
Phenol 7.36724 1629.51 181.369 -9.7 421.1
Phosphorus(red) 8.06420 2397.83 229.599 182.0 720.9
Phosphorus 7.06315 2016.60 201.670 131.0 317.0
Phosphorus Pentoxide 10.7453 6470.48 217.748 203.0 700.0
Propane 7.01887 889.864 257.084 -187.7 96.7
Propylene 7.01612 860.992 255.895 -184.2 91.6
n-Propyl Alcohol 7.77374 1518.16 213.076 -73.2 263.6
Isopropyl Alcohol 7.83056 1483.30 217.413 -87.9 235.2
1-Propanol 7.74416 1437.686 198.463 60.2 104.6
2-Propanol 7.74021 1359.517 197.527 52.3 89.3
Propionic Acid 7.71423 1733.418 217.724 72.4 128.3
Propylene Oxide 7.01443 1086.369 228.594 -24.2 34.8
Pyridine 7.04115 1373.799 214.979 67.3 152.9
Sodium Chloride 7.96318 8432.24 194.065 800.8 1465.1
Sodium Cyanide 7.38628 7836.86 243.409 563.7 1496.0
Sodium Hydroxide 7.46511 7606.44 280.160 500.0 1600.0
Sodium Sulfate 7.74474 15657.2 273.156 900.0 950.0
Sulfur Dioxide 7.33311 1013.46 237.647 -75.5 157.6
Sulfur Trioxide 6.85638 754.818 145.114 16.8 217.7
Sulfuric Acid 8.28538 2976.84 213.951 25.0 336.9
Styrene 7.06623 1507.434 214.985 29.9 144.8
Toluene 7.13620 1457.29 231.827 -95.0 318.6
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 8.64344 2136.621 302.769 -5.4 16.9
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 6.95185 1314.41 209.197 50 113.7
Trichloroethylene 6.51827 1018.603 192.731 17.8 86.5
Vinyl Acetate 7.2101 1296.13 226.655 21.8 72
Water 8.05573 1723.64 233.076 0 374.0
m-Xylene 7.18115 1573.02 226.671 -47.9 343.9
o-Xylene 7.14914 1566.59 222.596 -25.2 357.22
p-Xylene 7.15471 1553.95 225.230 13.3 343.1
Zinc 8.44744 6819.18 318.012 419.6 2896.9

## Section 10.11 – Heat capacity

Heat capacity is defined in another section. Two different polynomial forms and corresponding coefficients for many components are given here. These tables provide data for heat capacity and enthalpy calculations.

The first polynomial equation requires up to four constants and applies for many solids, liquids, and gases.

CP = a + b · T + c · T2 + d · T3

where CP is in either kJ/(mol∙°C) or kJ/(mol∙K), and T is in either °C or K.

 Component State a b c d Temp Unit Range (Low T) Range (High T) Acetone liquid 1.230E-01 1.860E-04 —– —– ºC -90 Acetone gas 7.196E-02 2.010E-04 -1.278E-07 3.476E-11 ºC 0 1200 Acetylene gas 4.243E-02 6.053E-05 -5.033E-08 1.820E-11 ºC 0 1200 Air gas 2.894E-02 4.147E-06 3.191E-09 -1.965E-12 ºC 0 1500 Ammonia gas 3.515E-02 2.954E-05 4.421E-09 -6.686E-12 ºC 0 1200 Ammonium Sulfate solid 2.159E-01 —– —– —– K 275 328 Benzene liquid 1.265E-01 2.340E-04 —– —– ºC 6 67 Benzene gas 7.406E-02 3.295E-04 -2.520E-07 7.757E-11 ºC 0 1200 Isobutane gas 8.946E-02 3.013E-04 -1.891E-07 4.987E-11 ºC 0 1200 n-Butane gas 9.230E-02 2.788E-04 -1.547E-07 3.498E-11 ºC 0 1200 Isobutene gas 8.288E-02 2.564E-04 -1.727E-07 5.050E-11 ºC 0 1200 Calcium Hydroxide solid 8.950E-02 —– —– —– K 276 373 Carbon Dioxide gas 3.611E-02 4.233E-05 -2.887E-08 7.464E-12 ºC 0 1500 Carbon Monoxide gas 2.895E-02 4.110E-06 3.548E-09 -2.220E-12 ºC 0 1501 Carbon Tetrachloride liquid 9.339E-02 1.298E-04 —– —– K 273 343 Chlorine gas 3.360E-02 1.367E-05 -1.607E-08 6.473E-12 ºC 0 1200 Copper solid 2.276E-02 6.117E-06 —– —– K 273 1357 Cumene (Isopropyl Benzene) gas 1.392E-01 5.376E-04 -3.979E-07 1.205E-10 ºC 0 1200 Cyclohexane gas 9.414E-02 4.962E-04 -1.390E-07 8.063E-11 ºC 0 1200 Cyclopentane gas 7.339E-02 3.928E-04 -2.554E-07 6.866E-11 ºC 0 1200 Ethane gas 4.937E-02 1.392E-04 -5.816E-08 7.280E-12 ºC 0 1200 Ethanol liquid 9.839E-02 —– —– —– ºC 25 75 Ethanol gas 6.134E-02 1.572E-04 -8.749E-08 1.983E-11 ºC 0 1200 Ethylene gas 4.075E-02 1.147E-04 -6.891E-08 1.766E-11 ºC 0 1200 Formaldehyde gas 3.428E-02 4.268E-05 —– -8.694E-12 ºC 0 1200 Helium gas 2.080E-02 —– —– —– ºC 0 1200 n-Hexane liquid 2.163E-01 —– —– —– ºC 20 100 n-Hexane gas 1.374E-01 4.085E-04 -2.392E-07 5.766E-11 ºC 0 1200 Hydrogen gas 2.884E-02 7.650E-08 3.288E-09 -8.698E-13 ºC 0 1500 Hydrogen Bromide gas 2.910E-02 -2.270E-07 9.887E-09 -4.858E-12 ºC 0 1200 Hydrogen Chloride gas 2.913E-02 -1.341E-06 9.715E-09 -4.335E-12 ºC 0 1200 Hydrogen Cyanide gas 3.530E-02 2.908E-05 -1.092E-08 —– ºC 0 1200 Hydrogen Sulfide gas 3.351E-02 1.547E-05 3.012E-09 -3.292E-12 ºC 0 1500 Magnesium Chloride solid 7.240E-02 1.580E-05 —– —– K 273 991 Methane gas 3.431E-02 5.469E-05 3.661E-09 -1.100E-11 ºC 0 1200 Methanol liquid 7.586E-02 1.683E-04 —– —– ºC 0 65 Methanol gas 4.293E-02 8.301E-05 -1.870E-08 -8.030E-12 ºC 0 700 Methyl Cyclohexane gas 1.213E-01 5.653E-04 -3.772E-07 1.008E-10 ºC 0 1200 Methyl Cyclopentane gas 9.883E-02 4.586E-04 -3.044E-07 8.381E-11 ºC 0 1200 Nitric Oxide liquid 1.100E-01 —– —– —– ºC 25 Nitric Oxide gas 2.950E-02 8.188E-06 -2.925E-09 3.652E-13 ºC 0 3500 Nitrogen gas 2.900E-02 2.199E-06 5.723E-09 -2.871E-12 ºC 0 1500 Nitrogen Dioxide gas 3.607E-02 3.970E-05 -2.880E-08 7.870E-12 ºC 0 1200 Nitrogen Tetraoxide gas 7.570E-02 1.250E-04 -1.130E-07 —– ºC 0 300 Nitrous Oxide gas 3.766E-02 4.151E-05 -2.694E-08 1.057E-11 ºC 0 1200 Oxygen gas 2.910E-02 1.158E-05 -6.076E-09 1.311E-12 ºC 0 1500 n-Pentane liquid 1.554E-01 4.368E-04 —– —– ºC 0 36 n-Pentane gas 1.148E-01 3.409E-04 -1.899E-07 4.226E-11 ºC 0 1200 Propane gas 6.803E-02 2.259E-04 -1.311E-07 3.171E-11 ºC 0 1200 Propylene gas 5.958E-02 1.771E-04 -1.017E-07 2.460E-11 ºC 0 1200 Sodium Carbonate solid 1.210E-01 —– —– —– K 288 371 Sodium Carbonate – Decahydrate solid 5.356E-01 —– —– —– K 298 Sulfur (rhombic) solid 1.520E-02 2.680E-05 —– —– K 373 368 Sulfur (monoclinic) solid 1.830E-02 1.840E-05 —– —– K 368 392 Sulfuric Acid liquid 1.391E-01 1.559E-04 —– —– ºC 10 45 Sulfur Dioxide gas 3.891E-02 3.904E-05 -3.104E-08 8.606E-12 ºC 0 1500 Sulfur Trioxide gas 4.850E-02 9.188E-05 -8.540E-08 3.240E-11 ºC 0 1000 Toluene liquid 1.488E-01 3.240E-04 —– —– ºC 0 110 Toluene gas 9.418E-02 3.800E-04 -2.786E-07 8.033E-11 ºC 0 1200 Water liquid 7.540E-02 —– —– —– ºC 0 100 Water gas 3.346E-02 6.880E-06 7.604E-09 -3.593E-12 ºC 0 1500

A second polynomial equation requires three constants, always uses K as the temperature unit, and applies only for components in the solid phase.

CP = a + b · T + cT2

where CP has units of kJ/mol-K and T has units of or K.

 Component a b c Range (Low T) Range (High T) Calcium Carbide 6.862E-02 1.190E-05 -8.660E+02 298 720 Calcium Carbonate 8.234E-02 4.975E-05 -1.287E+03 273 1033 Calcium Oxide 4.184E-02 2.030E-05 -4.520E+02 273 1173 Carbon 1.118E-02 1.095E-05 -4.891E+02 273 1373 Ferric Oxide 1.034E-01 6.711E-05 -1.772E+03 273 1097 Magnesium Oxide 4.544E-02 5.008E-06 -8.732E+02 273 2073

## Section 10.12 – Heat of solution for three common solutions

The enthalpy path related to heat of solution is in another section. These enthalpies are all at 25°C.

Table 10.12.1: Heat of solution.
r
[mol H2O/mol solute]
(∆hs)HCl(g)
[kJ/mol HCl]
(∆hs)NaOH(s)
[kJ/mol NaOH]
(∆hs)H2SO4
[kJ/mol H2SO4]
1 -26.22 -28.07
2 -48.82 -41.92
3 -56.85 -28.87 -48.99
4 -61.20 -34.43 -54.06
5 -64.05 -37.74 -58.03
10 -69.49 -42.51 -67.03
50 -73.26 -42.51 -73.34
100 -73.85 -42.34 -73.97
500 -74.52 -42.38 -76.73
1000 -74.68 -42.47 -78.57
5000 -74.93 -42.68 -84.43
10000 -74.99 -42.72 -87.07
-75.14 -42.89 -96.19

Tables from appendix of “Material and Energy Balances” (Matthew Liberatore). Copyright © “zyBooks” 2016.